The Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Game , The China Architectural Design & Research Group is leading the planning and Venue design for Yanqing Zone. The Yanqing Zone faces many challenges such as zero experience in venue design, construction and operation high difficulty of the two competition venues, and sensitive environment and ecology. During the six-year design and construction period , the design team adopted the innovative design working model of “planning with venues, designing with demand, and engineering with scientific research”, completed the design of several difficult venues and facilities, restored the ecological environment of the competition area, and successfully implemented the core concept of “Mountain forest venues, Ecological Winter Olympics”. as been successfully implemented to prepare for the arrival of Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Game and the long-term operation after games as well as the experience and evaluation of the community.
▼自西南向东北俯瞰延庆赛区，Aerial view to Yanqing Zone from southwest © 孙海霆
As one of the three competition zones for the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, the core area of the Yanqing Competition Zone is located in the valley at the southern foot of Xiaohaituo, south of the Jundu Mountains in the Yanshan Mountains in Yanqing District. It is bordered by the Yanqing Basin to the south and is adjacent to the Songshan National Forest Park Nature Reserve. The location of the race area is high in the mountains and forests, with beautiful scenery, deep valleys, complex terrain, and the cramped and limited land for construction.
▼2022年北京冬奥会各赛区位置示意，Location map of the competition zones for The Beijing 2022 Olympics © 中国建筑设计研究院
延庆赛区主要举办高山滑雪、雪车雪橇2个大项、21个小项的比赛，将产生21块冬奥会金牌，约占冬奥会金牌总数的1/5；产生30块冬残奥会金牌，约占冬残奥会金牌总数的3/8。延庆赛区用地面积799.13hm2, 其中建设用地面积76.55hm2, 总建筑面积26.9万m2。延庆赛区核心区将集中建设两个竞赛场馆—国家高山滑雪中心、国家雪车雪橇中心和两个非竞赛场馆——延庆冬奥村、山地新闻中心，以及大量配套基础设施，是最具挑战性的冬奥赛区。
The Yanqing Competition Zone mainly hosts two significant events, alpine skiing and sliding (Bobsleigh, Skeleton and Luge) two main sports, containing 21 minor events. There will be 21 Winter Olympic gold medals awarded in the Yanqing Competition Zone, representing about 1/5 of the total number of Winter Olympic gold medals, and 30 Paralympic gold medals, representing about 3/8 of the total number of Winter Paralympic gold medals. The area of Yanqing Competition Zone is 799.13hm2, of which 76.55hm2 is for site construction, with a total floor area of 269,000m2. The core area of Yanqing Competition Zone is focused on the construction of two competition venues (National Alpine Skiing Center and National Sliding Center), two non-competition venues (Yanqing Winter Olympic Village and Yanqing Mountain Service Center), as well as a large amount of supporting infrastructure, making it the most challenging of the Winter Olympic competition zones.
▼延庆赛区渲染图，Yanqing Zone (rendering) © 中国建筑设计研究院
As an important legacy of the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, the functional positioning of Yanqing is centered on creating an international first-class alpine skiing center, sliding center, and national-level snow training base. It is also establishing an engineering example that reflects the concept of green, ecological and sustainable development. The aim is to build a regional Beijing service space that integrates mountain ice and snow sports, leisure tourism, and a Winter Olympic theme park. At the same time, the Yanqing Competition Zone faces four significant challenges: 1) zero experience in the design, construction, and operation of the two competition venues; 2) the high mountains, deep valleys and dense forests pose significant challenges to planning, construction, and operation; 3) comprehensive consideration of the environment, ecological sensitivity, and economically underdeveloped areas; 4) the high standard required for the Winter Olympic Games, the integration of sport and culture, and the requirement to showcase Chinese culture to the world.
▼延庆赛区总图，Yanqing Zone – Master plan © 中国建筑设计研究院
The proposed concept of “Mountain forest venues, Ecological Winter Olympics” means that a cluster of venues surrounded by mountains and forests for a green and ecologically sustainable Winter Olympics. The joint innovation of architectural design, landscape design, sliding track design as well as piste design creates a landmark event venue. The Yanqing Competition Zone attempts to be integrated with nature in order to maximizing the athlete’s participation experience, enhancing the audience’s experience of watching the game, and minimizing the disturbance to the existing natural environment. On the basis of meeting the requirements of the exciting Olympic events, it seeks to build a green Winter Olympic zone that blends in with the natural mountains and forests. Meanwhile, it focuses on the long-term beneficial use and operation of the Olympic legacy, continuing and maintaining the unique geological heritage, historical and cultural, and ecological resources that Yanqing possesses, and practicing the concept of sustainable development.
▼延庆赛区整体立面，Yanqing Zone – Elevation © 中国建筑设计研究院
After nearly four years of design and construction from 2017 to 2021, the venue planning and supporting facilities of the Yanqing Competition Zone and the concept of “Mountain Forest Venue, Ecological Winter Olympics” have been successfully implemented. The venue is ready for the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games and Winter Paralympic Games, the long-term operation after the games, as well as the experience and evaluation of the community. The concept of “mountain forest venues, ecological Winter Olympics” in Yanqing is maintained by implementing a Green Olympics strategy according to the practices of the international community, and the sustainable concepts of the Olympic Agenda 2020. It is also a powerful manifestation of China’s national ecological development philosophy and reflects the Chinese cultural concept of the interplay between the natural and the artificial.
▼俯瞰雪车雪橇中心，Aerial view to the sliding center
National Alpine Skiing Center
高山滑雪项目被誉为“冬奥会皇冠上的明珠”，包括滑降、回转、大回转、超级大回转、全能及混合团体合计11个小项。国家高山滑雪中心位于小海坨山南侧中高海拔区域，高程分布自1041m至2198m，赛道拥有近900m 落差，近 3km 坡面长度，创造山脊、山林、山槽、山湾、跳跃、峡谷等各种环境差异并存的赛道。
Alpine skiing is the jewel in the crown of the Winter Olympics, with 11 disciplines, including Downhill, Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super-G, Combined Events, and Team Events. The National Alpine Skiing Center is located in the middle-high altitude area on the south side of Xiaohaituo Mountain, with an altitude ranging from 1041m to 2198m. The piste has a drop of nearly 900m and a slope length of nearly 3km, which arises from various ridges, forests, chutes, bays, jumps, and gorges.
▼延庆赛区国家高山滑雪中心全景，National Alpine Skiing Center, overall view © 北京城建集团有限责任公司
The piste system and infrastructure are complex and include three competition pistes, four training pistes, connecting pistes, technical roads, and a 4.5km long returning piste down the valley that is transformed from the construction road. Meanwhile, The National Alpine Skiing Center also built a concourse with media compound included, Peak Departure Area, Technical Finish Area, Speed Finish Area, and Middle Platform, as well as supporting mountainous projects, ropeway systems, snowmaking systems and technical roads and vehicle road systems.
▼高山滑雪中心总平面图，Master plan © 中国建筑设计研究院
The National Alpine Skiing Center covers an area of 432.4ha, with a total construction area of about 43,200 m2 . The alpine skiing area can be reached from the ropeway and alpine ferry bus parking area on the west side of the Yanqing Winter Olympic Village in the southern area. The route follows a narrow and winding valley in a north-easterly direction for approximately 7.6km. The main functional areas are scattered in a pearl chain layout in the narrow, steep valley, and located around the Peak Departure Area (including the Gondola Station) at the highest point of Xiaohaituo Mountain, which will serve not only as the highest Start Area for speed and technical competitions, but also a permanent alpine tourism destination. The building is like a vast kite being flown on the top of the mountain. The Middle Platform is a vital transfer center for the ropeway and provides an excellent location for filming the alpine skiing speed competition.
▼从赛道出发区俯瞰竞速雪道、中间平台、竞技结束区 (远景为国家雪车雪橇中心) © 孙海霆
Aerial view to the pistes, the Middle Platform and the Technical Finish Area from the Departure Area (with the National Sliding Center in the background)
▼山顶出发区鸟瞰，Aerial view to the Peak Departure Area © 孟阳
The planning and design of National Alpine Skiing Center adopts the key principle of adapting to the environment in order to maximize the fit of the piste design to the existing terrain. The amount of excavation work is partially balanced, the amount of earthwork for the piste is coordinated, the design is tracked throughout the construction process, and the piste is designed to fit the terrain at a 70% slope gradient. The key features of National Alpine Skiing Center are “weak intervention”, “reversible functional type”, and “assemble structural style”. The main functional areas, such as the concourse, media compound, and Finish Areas, are laid out in slabs that follow the contours of the terrain. The prefabricated structures are erected as staggered platforms of different heights, systematically interspersed throughout the valley, thus weakening the architectural image and complementing the mountain environment. The construction of the National Alpine Skiing Center is also characterized by the application of mountainous ecological restoration techniques such as topsoil stripping.
▼竞技结束区建筑及设施布局，Layout of the Technical Finish Area © 中国建筑设计研究院
▼集散广场及竞速结束区建筑及设施布局，Layout of the Speed Finish Area and the Concourse © 中国建筑设计研究院
After the Winter Olympics, the returning piste, and the technical piste of the National Alpine Skiing Center will be converted into a 15.3km public piste, except for an area saved as competition and training pistes. Each functional area will be transformed into a training base for the Chinese national team, an Alpine Skiing and Mountain Sports Center, a Rock-climbing Activity Center, a Strop Activity Center, a Landscape Veranda, and a Mountain Visitor Center.
▼国家高山滑雪中心南侧远景，Distant view from south © 孙海霆
National Sliding Center
As the fastest event of the Winter Olympics, the sliding (Bobsleigh, Skeleton and Luge) event is known as the Formula 1 of snow sports and includes the Bobsleigh, Skeleton, and Luge events. There are ten disciplines in total: 2-man/woman Bobsleigh, 4-man Bobsleigh (men and/or women), women’s Monobob, men’s/women’s Skeleton, men’s/women’s single luge, men’s/women’s double luge, and luge team relay.
▼由北向南俯瞰国家雪车雪橇中心，Aerial view to the National Sliding Center © 孙海霆
国家雪车雪橇中心位于延庆赛区南区中部的一块北高南低的山脊坡地，高程分布自896m至1017m，赛道垂直落差121m，赛道长度1975m，设置16个弯道 (其中第11弯道为回旋弯)，最高速度135km/h，最大加速度4.9g，赛道设置5个出发区 (其中一个为大众体验使用)，赛道制冷采用环保节能效果最好的氨制冷系统。主要建设内容包括赛道、出发区、结束区、运行与后勤综合区、出发训练道(冰屋)及团队车库、制冷机房等。
▼国家雪车雪橇中心轴测图，National Sliding Center – Axon © 中国建筑设计研究院
The National Sliding Center is located in the middle of the southern part of the Yanqing Competition Zone, on a high north-south ridge. The altitude ranges from 896m to 1017m. The vertical drop of the track is 121m and the length of the track is 1975m, with 16 bends (bend 11 is spiral bend). The track has five start houses (one of them is for massive experiment), a maximum speed of 135km/h and a maximum acceleration of 4.9g. The track is cooled by the most environmentally friendly and energy-efficient ammonia refrigeration system. The main construction includes the track, Start House, Finish House, Operation and Logistic Compound, the start training track (push track), Team Garage, Refrigeration Plant, etc.
▼从冬奥村看蜿蜒的雪车雪橇中心，View from the Olympic village © 孙海霆
▼从赛道的屋顶步道看向出发区1、2、3，View to the Start House 1, 2 and 3 from the rooftop walk © 孙海霆
▼出发区1内景：赛道与观众看台，Interior view of the Start House 1 © 张玉婷
▼出发区2外景，Exterior view of the Start House 2 © 孙海霆
The National Sliding Center has a site area of 18.69hm2 and a construction area of 52,600m2. Its track is the third in Asia and the 17th in the world to be certified by the International Bobsleigh & Skeleton Federation. The audience passes through the security inspection square on the south side of Yanqing Winter Olympic Village, turns to the west, follows the wide footpath on the 900m dam in the valley and the connecting pedestrian bridge, arrives at the tunnel entrance below the track, “Ling Shui Chuanshan”, and enters the main audience square.
▼螺旋弯北望出发区、结束区，View to the Start Houses and the Finish Houses © 张玉婷
▼钢架雪车在螺旋弯赛道上飞驰，The Skeleton speeding around the spiral track © 孙海霆
▼从赛道檐下看运营区、观众广场及螺旋弯，View to the Operation Compound and Audience plaza from the sheltered space of the track © 张玉婷
▼悬挑于赛道之上的运营综合区，Operation and Logistic Compound hanging above the tracks © 刘紫骐
▼结束区观众席，spectator seats in the Finish House © 孙海霆
国家雪车雪橇中心由赛道形状和遮阳设计带来的独特建筑形态，宛如一条游龙飞腾于山脊之上，使其成为具有突出标志性特征的场馆。雪车雪橇场馆设计的重要特点是研发并应用了地形气候保护系统TWPS (Terrain Weather Protection System)， 解决了“南坡变北坡”的设计难题，其设计理念、技术实施路径和遮阳系统的生成与设计、钢木组合结构、屋面系统等专项技术及成果都达到世界领先水平。屋顶步道游廊设计使游客在观赛之余还可以沿长长的赛道回环攀升，登高望远，欣赏赛区美景。
The distinctive architectural form brought about by the track shape and shading structure design of National Sliding Center is like a dragon flying above the ridge, making it a venue with iconic features. An essential feature of the design of the National Sliding Center is the development and application of the Terrain Weather Protection System (TWPS), which solves the design problem of “the south slope changes into the north slope”. The design and application of the shading system, steel-wood composite structure, roofing system, and other unique technologies and achievements have reached the world’s top-level. The rooftop walk veranda allows visitors to watch the race while climbing high above the track, allowing them to admire the beautiful scenery of the competition area.
▼国家雪车雪橇中心西南方向鸟瞰，Aerial view to the National Sliding Center from southwest © 孙海霆
Yanqing Olympic Village
The Yanqing Winter Olympic Village is located on a naturally occurring alluvial plain terrace in the middle of the river valley in the southern part of the Yanqing Competition Zone and at the foot of the Haituo Mountains in the east. The elevation ranges from 906m to 972m, adjacent to the security plaza and the cable car station at the bottom of the mountain. The difference in elevation is approximately 30m from east to west and 66m from north to south, with an average gradient of approximately 10%. Natural mountains and forests are everywhere. There is a relic of the original Xiaozhuangke Village in the middle of the site.
▼从国家雪车雪橇中心眺望冬奥村雪景，Aerial view to the Olympic Village from the National Sliding Center © 张玉婷
建设内容包括居住区、国际区和运营区，为运动员及随队官员提供1430床位 (不含另设的一个预留居住组团)。延庆冬奥村用地面积 11.2hm2，地上总建筑面积9.1万m2。运营区和国际区位于西侧地势较低的台地，居住区则位于东侧地势较高的台地，通过连续回环的车行道路及纵向开阖的人行步道组织在一起。
The construction includes a Residential Zone, International Zone, and Operational Zone, providing 1,430 beds for athletes and accompanying officials (excluding an additional reserved residential cluster). The Yanqing Winter Olympic Village has a site area of 11.2hm2 and a total above-ground floor area of 91,000 m2. The Operational Zone and International Zone are located on the lower terraces to the west, while the Residential Zone is located on the higher terraces to the east. They are connected by continuous looping roads and longitudinally opened pedestrian walkways.
▼从车橇隧道入口东望冬奥村，View to the Olympic Village from the entrance to the sliding channel © 杨耀钧
▼轴测图，Axon © 中国建筑设计研究院
The first significant feature of the Yanqing Winter Olympic Village is the mountain village’s decentralized, semi-open courtyard pattern. The buildings and squares cascade down the terrain from south to north, gradually dissipating the differences in elevation. Throughout the Yanqing Winter Olympic Village, the sloping roofs, terraces, and courtyards dialogue with the surrounding mountainous water system. The warm corridor system uses underground and above-ground indoor corridors to connect all residential clusters and public spaces and is an all-weather accessible indoor pathway. The second feature is the combination of the restored Xiaozhuangke Village site and the green landscape water system, which has become a unique public space for the Yanqing Winter Olympic Village. The third feature is the documentation of the 382 trees on the site through mapping and site visits and the classification and conservation of these trees according to their diameter. Building clusters and courtyards have been arranged to avoid existing trees as much as possible so that the plazas, walkways, and buildings are set within the landscape of the mountains and forests.
▼运动员组团，The residential cluster © 孙海霆
▼运动员组团间花园南望，A garden within the residential cluster © 张音玄
▼树木掩映的运动员组团与远山，The residential cluster surrounded by plants © 孙海霆
After the Olympics, the Yanqing Winter Olympic Village will be transformed into a skiing hotel with mass slopes, supporting facilities, and a mountain leisure and tourism resort that will operate throughout the year. It will be divided into two different standards and sizes, providing more than 600 standard rooms and suites to meet the needs of different groups of people. This plan will serve enthusiasts of snow and ice sports, and mountain activity enthusiasts, as well as the general public, thus promoting winter snow and ice sports and four-season tourism.
▼从南侧北望冬奥村，View to the Olympic village from south
▼安检广场的保留树木，The preserved trees in the security square © 孙海霆
▼冬奥村层叠的木瓦屋面，The shingle roof scape © 孙海霆
Yanqing Mountain Service Center
The Yanqing Mountain Service Center is located in the middle of the southern part of the competition area, on a relatively independent mountain to the southeast of National Sliding Center. The topography extends from north to south, across which is a 30m difference in elevation, and spreads out in sequence along with the plateauing trend. The building includes the central entrance plaza, foyer, and lounge as the core and extend to the north and south includes a foyer, information services, a fast food retail, logistics, press hall, exhibition center, multifunctional hall, rest area, and office space. It provides international and professional services for the news media and the staff in the competition area.
▼山地新闻中心东北侧山体覆土，Aerial view to the Mountain Service Center © 张音玄
The building adopts a semi-covered soil design. The northern part of the building is concealed under the mountainous landform (only the roof skylight of the ample main space is exposed). The southern end is exposed layer by layer, forming a hilltop landscape system with a succession of landscaped walkways and platforms. A semi-sunken eye-shaped entrance plaza is located at the west of the building. The site boundary on the west side is reshaped through artificial interfaces such as portals and a natural connection with the surrounding hills.
▼山地新闻中心屋顶景观，Roof scape © 孙海霆
▼山地新闻中心二层室外走廊，Corridor on the second floor © 张音玄
As a demonstration building with near-zero carbon emissions, the Yanqing Mountain Service Center’s cost-saving measures include cladding – using planted roofs and passive technologies to reduce energy consumption in the building’s operation. Its increasing income measures include an integrated rooftop photovoltaic system incorporating large skylights. The Yanqing Mountain Service Center will be converted into a mountain spa after the competition and will be operated in conjunction with the adjacent Yanqing Winter Olympic Village Skiing Resort Hotel, making it an ideal place for public recreation and relaxation.
▼山地新闻中心大厅，The main hall © 张音玄
Xidazhuangke Village is located in the southwest of the race area, next to the National Sliding Center. On the basis of maintaining and continuing the original pattern, texture and appearance of the mountain village, it is repaired, renovated and upgraded to inject modern vitality. All villagers are properly resettled in the area, serving the Winter Olympics Game and converting into the ice and snow industry after game. The project has created and practiced a sustainable social development model that combines the transformation of existing mountain villages with large-scale events and post-competition services under the Winter Olympics model, enhancing the villagers’ sense of achievement and happiness, and is a model of “sharing the Olympics”.
▼从西大庄科村南侧眺望延庆赛区，Aerial view to Yanqing Zone from Xidazhuangke Village © 刘紫骐
▼从雪车雪橇中心西望西大庄科村，Aerial view from the National Sliding Center © 刘紫骐
▼西大庄科村街景，Street view © 刘紫骐
Infrastructure of Yanqing Zone
The construction of integrated pipework in the area introduces external municipal pipelines, including a snowmaking and water supply system, domestic water supply system, recycled water system, sewage and waste disposal system, storm flood system, electrical system, telecommunications system, thermal system, etc.
▼外部西南人视，Exterior view from southwest © 刘振
The nodal buildings of the infrastructure system include a primary and secondary pumping station for snowmaking and water supply, 110kV Haituo station, 900m dam, 1050m dam, 1290m dam, pumping station and management room, gondola station, integrated management and monitoring center, weather radar station, integrated pipe gallery monitoring center, LNG station, garbage transfer station, sewage treatment station, etc. They have all been carefully located and designed to suit the different mountain environments in which they are located, by using tailored strategies and design approaches. The building is designed to enhance its public and landscape character while fully meeting its functional needs.
▼延庆赛区基础设施布局，Infrastructure of Yanqing Zone – Master plan © 中国建筑设计研究院
It also tries to explore two different and related expression modes of building types: production / industry / technology and life / management / landscape from the aspects of scale, structure, form and materials. As an indispensable part of the “Mountain Forest Venue, Ecological Winter Olympics”, the two pumping stations for snowmaking and water supply, two 110kV substations, and two dams form an infrastructure separated from the urban space and has a mountain-forest character .
Primary pumping station and water plant
▼生产院落檐下，Production courtyard © 孙海霆
▼监控中心露台向东俯瞰生活院落，Aerial view to the inhabitant courtyard © 孙海霆
Secondary pumping station and water plant
▼二级泵站西侧鸟瞰，Aerial view to the secondary pumping station © 孙海霆
▼西南半山人视，Perspective from southwest © 孙海霆
▼二级泵站眺望赛区，Overlook to the competition zone from the pumping station © 孙海霆
110kV Haituo station
▼变电站南向鸟瞰，Aerial view to the Haituo station
▼东北沿道路人视，View from the road © 张广源
Other parts of the infrastructure
▼污水处理站，Sewage treatment station
▼玉渡110kV变电站，110kV Yudu Station
▼3号生活泵房及PS200造雪泵房， No.3 living water pumping station and PS200 snowmaking pumping station
National Sliding Center – Masterplan © 中国建筑设计研究院
Yanqing Mountain Service Center – Master plan © 中国建筑设计研究院
Yanqing Olympic Village – Masterplan © 中国建筑设计研究院