该砖厂是瑞士德语区唯一一座保存完好的手工砖厂,如今作为砖厂博物馆在运营。砖厂的建筑群包括一个木制晒砖棚、一个可能不再运行的窑炉、粘土坑生态单元、一座带有花园的住宅建筑以及一座取代被烧毁的谷仓的博物馆建筑。2017年,慕尼黑工业大学客座教授的学生在这里进行新窑塔的设计工作。他们所应用的预应力土木结构是基于在Sitterwerk机构开展的实体模型研究,同时也是世上首座预应力夯土建筑。

The brickworks, that is run today by the Brickworks Museum, is the only intact surviving handmade brickworks in German-speaking Switzerland. The listed ensemble consists of a timber brick-drying shed, a kiln, that may no longer be operated, the biotope of the historical clay pit, a residential building with gardens, and a museum building which replaces a burned-down barn. In 2017 students of the guest professorship at the TU Munich worked on the task of designing a new kiln tower on the site. The prestressed earth-and-timber structure is based directly on the mock-up carried out at the Sitterwerk and is the world’s first prestressed earth building.

▼项目概览,general view ©Kuster Frey

建筑材料呈现出未烧制的粘土形态,展示了古老的夯土建造方式在当代的发展。新窑塔允许游客从约8米高的观景台上观察场地,而且使工作人员能够重新用新窑烧砖。此外,这里还将设置展示其他博物馆展品的空间。

The building material presents clay in its unfired form and demonstrates a contemporary development of the archaic method of building with rammed earth. The new tower allows visitors to survey the site from atop the roughly eight-meter-high viewing platform and enables the staff to fire bricks again with the new kiln. In addition, a space will be created for displaying other museum exhibits.

▼南立面,south facade ©Kuster Frey

▼东立面,east facade ©Kuster Frey

▼局部:未烧制的粘土,partial view: unfired clay ©Kuster Frey

展室与窑室相邻,具有坚固的木制天花,夯土的存在和窑壁的纪念性决定了该空间的特征。预应力构件设置开放式接缝前,游客可以体验到夯土墙的整体坚固性,这与拉杆的精细形成鲜明对比。简洁的钢架可以连接到这些拉杆上,从而固定展板或展品。此外,人们可以由钢制旋转楼梯通往屋顶观景台。

▼结构分析,structure diagram ©Boltshauser Architekten

The exhibition room with the adjoining kiln has a solid, stiffening timber ceiling. Its character is defined by the presence of earth and the monumentality of the concluding kiln wall. Thanks to the light slits of the open joints, in front of which the prestressing elements run, visitors can experience the whole solidity of the rammed earth walls, that contrasts with the delicacy of the tension bars. Simple steel frames can be attached to these to hold exhibition panels or exhibits. A steel spiral staircase provides access to the viewing platform on the roof.

▼钢制旋转楼梯,steel spiral staircase ©Kuster Frey

▼钢架用于展示粘土展品 ©Kuster Frey
steel frame for displaying clay exhibits

用夯土构件建造房屋并不新奇,但砌块之间的接缝尺寸取决于运输和组装条件,通常需要在事后耗费时间来人工填充。这消除了使用预制构件建造的痕迹,这也成为该实验建筑的主题,即通过结构创新来提高建筑过程的效率和稳定性。第一项结构创新是前面提到的预应力,它使系统能够抵抗地震荷载,只承受压缩荷载的夯土和抗拉钢材是一对完美组合。第二项结构创新是将木材底板整合到墙体中,板上装有防风雨滴水杆,保护夯土不受侵蚀,并且表明连接原理。

Building with rammed earth elements is not new, but the joints between blocks, whose size depends on conditions of transportation and assembly, are usually time-consumingly hand-filled afterwards. This eliminates the traces of building with prefabricated elements, that become the theme of this experimental architecture which seeks to increase the efficiency of the building process and stability by means of structural innovations. The first innovation is the aforementioned prestressing which makes the system resistant to earthquake loads. The earth, that can only withstand compressive loads, and the tensile steel are a perfect match. The second innovation is the integration of the timber element base plates into the wall structure. A weather drip is installed on the plates on site to protect the earth from erosion and illustrate the joining principle.

▼细部,detail ©Kuster Frey

▼施工细节,construction details ©Sandro Livio Straube

▼施工现场,construction site ©Sandro Livio Straube

该项目的科学监测是夯土研究的一大贡献。瑞士每年挖掘六千多吨土和粘土,其中大部分用于填埋砾石坑。找到使用这种未开发资源的新方法,将为替代混凝土和砖等能源密集型建材做出重要贡献。与传统的建筑方法相比,这将使新建筑的隐含能源节约高达40%。

The scientific monitoring of the project is a contribution to researching rammed earth. More than sixty million tons of earth and clay are excavated in Switzerland every year, most of which is used to landfill gravel pits. Finding new ways to use this unexploited resource would be an important contribution to substituting energy-intensive building material such as concrete and bricks. Compared with conventional building methods, this would enable embodied energy savings of up to forty percent in new-builds.

▼夯土模型,models ©Sandro Livio Straube

▼平面图,plans ©Boltshauser Architekten

▼南立面图,south elevation ©Boltshauser Architekten

▼东西立面图,east & west elevations ©Boltshauser Architekten

▼剖面图,sections ©Boltshauser Architekten

▼构造细部,details ©Boltshauser Architekten

 

Kiln Tower for the Brickworks Museum
Ziegelhütte, 6332 Cham
Chronology
2017–2019 Visiting professorship Roger Boltshauser
at TU Munich and ETH Zurich
07/2019 Creation of elements at a summer school in Brunnen
12/2020 Completion
Uses: Viewing tower, store-room, kiln
Commission type: Direct commission
Client: Verein Ofenturm Ziegelei-Museum, Cham
Participating planners
Architecture: Boltshauser Architekten AG, Zurich, with students from TU Munich and ETH Zurich, based on the design by students Robert Gentner and Regina Pötzinger
General planner, quantity surveyor, site supervision:
Boltshauser Architekten AG, Zurich
Structural engineer: SEFORB Sàrl, Uster
Rammed earth construction: LEHMAG AG, Brunnen, together with students from various universities
Earth brick masonry: Terrabloc SA, Genf
Earth material: Ziegelei Schumacher AG, Gisiken
Timber and metal: Nüssli AG, Hüttwilen
Prestressing engineer: Jakob AG, Trubschachen
Foundation: Keller Unternehmungen AG, Pfungen
Civil engineer: KIBAG Holding AG, Bäch
Master builder: Ineichen AG, Baar
Lighting consultant: Reflexion AG, Zurich
Team Boltshauser Architekten AG
Project leader: Felix Hilgert
Bauleitung: Giuseppe Pascoli
Intern: Léon Bührer, Miklós Doma, Yves Péclard
Gross floor area (SIA 416): 56.70 m2
Building volume (SIA 416): 476.30 m3

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