TYPE建筑事务所将位于英国德文郡的一座破旧的石砌谷仓改造成了可持续的现代农宅。

199平方米的谷仓坐落在一处25英亩的绿地上,该项目的业主和事务所计划将这处场地作为一个长期的开发项目,旨在将既有的农业遗迹转变为新建的生态小农场的核心区域。该项目包含一个新的菜园、一个传统果园和一系列野花草坪,其中穿插着天然绿地、树篱以及生长着杂树林和灌木丛的区域。

Architectural practice TYPE has reclaimed a dilapidated stone barn in Devon, giving it renewed purpose as a sustainable, contemporary rural family home. 

The 199m² retrofitted barn sits within a 25-acre site of green fields and is part of a wider long-term strategy, which is being developed by the clients and the practice, to regenerate and rewild the secluded site, turning an agricultural relic into the hub of a new ecological smallholding. The scheme creates a new kitchen garden, traditional orchard and series of wildflower meadows, interspersed with wild margins, hedgebanks and areas of copse and scrub.

▼项目外观,Exterior view © Rory Gardiner

Redhill谷仓建造于1810年,最初被一座富裕的农庄用作打谷棚和牛舍。后来,该建筑与其他农场建筑脱离,且无法从马路上进入,久而久之便形成了破败的局面:屋顶变塌陷,遗留下来的石墙上布满了杂草。TYPE团队的策略是在经过重建的谷仓内创造一个新家,以保留原始建筑的特点和它独特而厚重的石墙。设计利用了既有的围墙,并未在立面上强加新的开口。后退于立面的门窗设计得十分简约,能够引入尽可能多的自然光线。原先可以让牛通过的开口也被完好地保留下来,借助旋转门的置入形成一个宽阔而易于操作的入口。

Dating from 1810, Redhill Barn was originally a threshing barn and cow byre, built as part of a wealthy farming estate. Separated from other farm buildings and inaccessible by road, the building fell into disrepair; the roof fell in and the remaining stone walls became overgrown. Intent on preserving the character of the original building with its monumental stone walls, TYPE’s strategy has been to create a new home within the reconstructed barn, rather than convert the barn into a house. The design utilises the original envelope, with no new openings imposed on the elevations. Fenestration is set back and minimal, allowing maximum light to enter. Pivot doors allow the wide openings that were originally made for cattle to remain undivided, yet easily handled.

▼建筑立面,保留了独特而厚重的石墙 © Rory Gardiner
Building facade, the monumental stone walls have been preserved

房屋拥有一个简单的坡屋顶,经过铣削的铝板重现了原先的屋顶形式,同时为之增添了一层轻盈与反光的特质。褶皱的表面和省去了雨槽的屋檐回应了农业建筑的细部和材料特征。

The house has a simple hipped roof with milled aluminium sheeting to ‘ghost’ the original roof form in a light, reflective material; the corrugated profile and gutterless eave reference agricultural detailing and materials.

▼入口台阶,Entrance stairs © Rory Gardiner

谷仓内的石柱为新增加的木制楼板和屋顶结构(使用了产自英国的花旗松木)提供了基础,使人想起传统谷仓建筑的韵律和美感。屋顶桁架纵向地跨越空间,并通过小直径的木制和钢制连接件进行固定,从而让结构高于传统的桁架,进一步凸显出空间的层高、形式和尺度。

The plan is informed by the barn’s internal stone columns, which provide the base for a new timber floor and roof structure (Douglas fir from the UK) designed to evoke the rhythm and beauty of traditional barn structures. The roof truss spans lengthways, utilising small diameter timber and steel connections, allowing the structure to sit higher than a conventional truss, stressing the height, form and scale of the space.

▼宽阔而易于操作的旋转门 © Rory Gardiner
Pivot doors allow the wide openings to become easily handled

▼石柱为新增加的木制楼板和屋顶结构提供了基础 © Rory Gardiner
The internal stone columns, which provide the base for a new timber floor and roof structure

房屋首层包含两间卧室、浴室以及厨房,依据既有的拱形门洞进行布局。二层设有一个宽敞且充满光线的开放空间,作为房子主要的社交和休闲区域。书房和淋浴房被安置在以英国梧桐木包覆的“浮箱”内,分别位于主空间的两端。

The two bedrooms, bathroom and kitchen are located on the ground floor in a cellular arrangement which makes use of a series of arched doorways. The open expanse of the upper floor is a generous light-filled space for relaxing, and the main social space of the house. Floating boxes clad in English sycamore create discrete spaces for a study and shower room that bookend the main space.

▼厨房,kitchen © Rory Gardiner

▼二层开放的休闲空间,the main social space on the upper floor © Rory Gardiner

该项目被作为自建房来管理,没有主承包商的参与,以确保建筑的每个施工细节都能够得到最直接和精确的把控。该设计跨越了多种尺度,从大范围的景观战略到每一个小型配件,全面的细部考量使材料特性得以充分展现,实现了传统技术与当代工艺的结合。

TYPE managed the project as a self-build, forgoing a main contractor to manage all subconsultants and trades directly, ensuring that they could apply the same quality of care and craftsmanship to all aspects of the build. The design works across multiple scales, from the wider landscape strategy to the smallest fittings, and comprehensive detailing is used to express material properties and marry traditional techniques with contemporary craftsmanship.

▼主空间两端的木制“浮箱”内包含了淋浴间和书房 © Rory Gardiner
Study and shower room are arranged in the floating boxes that bookend the main space

▼楼梯,staircase © Rory Gardiner

原先闭塞且不通水电的场地如今拥有了便捷的入口路径,不仅配备了空气热源泵,还获得了安装地面光伏板的许可。

项目业主Richard和Dawn表示:“Redhill谷仓终于完工了,我们将继续关注它所在的、代表着德文郡乡村特质的农田。在这个项目中,我们始终将’保护野生动物’放在首要位置,我们必须在景观管理和低影响的重建之间获取平衡,这样才能够扭转野生动物因现代农耕方式而遭受伤害的局面。”

The site was originally inaccessible and without water and electricity. It now benefits from an access track and is equipped with an air-source heat pump, and permission has been granted for ground-mounted photovoltaics.

Commissioning clients, Richard and Dawn, said: “Now that Redhill Barn is complete, we are focusing on the farmland it sits within and it originally served, which is typical of the Devonshire countryside. Putting ‘wildlife first’ is the driving ethos: we recognise the need to balance stewardship of the landscape with low impact regeneration, creating new habitats which will reverse the decline of our seriously beleaguered wildlife so badly hit by modern farming methods.”

▼从草坪望向谷仓住宅,View from the lawn © Rory Gardiner

该项目反映了TYPE对于生态学、低能耗建筑和建筑与自然界的联系的兴趣,同时展现了他们在工艺方法上的严谨态度。该项目的施工长达5年,为了近距离地指导工作,事务所的创始合伙人Tom Powell甚至与他的伴侣一起搬到现场居住。

TYPE事务所设计总监Tom Powell表示:“Redhill谷仓为我们提供了一个独特的设计和建造机会,它反映了我们事务所一直秉持的理念和整体方法,并涉及到景观设计、室内设计师和家具设计等各个方面。从每块石头的放置到门把手的形状,所有细节都得到了仔细的考量。这使我们得以超越建筑师的传统角色,亲力亲为地把控项目在场地上的精准实现,最终取得令人满意的成果。”

The project embodies TYPE’s interest in ecology, low-energy construction and architecture’s interface with the natural world, and it exemplifies a rigorous approach to craft. It was on site for five years, managed at close hand by founding partner Tom Powell, who moved to site with his partner to lead the build.

Tom Powell, Director, TYPE, said: “Redhill Barn has afforded us the unique opportunity of leading the design and construction of one of our projects. The project reflects the ethos of our practice and our holistic approach, which includes working with the landscape, building, interiors and furniture design, and takes into account all details, from how individual stones are placed to how the door handles are shaped. Going beyond the traditional role of the architect allowed us to achieve a satisfaction in how things are detailed and put together on site, which was as much a result of physically building as it was from drawing.”

▼场地位置示意,Location plan © TYPE

▼轴测图,Axonometric © TYPE

▼首层平面图,Ground floor plan © TYPE

▼二层平面图,First floor plan © TYPE

▼剖面图AA,Section AA © TYPE

▼剖面图BB,Section BB © TYPE

▼屋顶桁架细部,Roof Truss © TYPE

▼大门细部,Door detail © TYPE

Site area: 25 acres
Gross internal area: 199m2
Architect: TYPE
Design team:
Sam Nelson, Ognjen Ristic, Matt Cooper, Tom Powell, Sarah Firth
Project management: Tom Powell and Sarah Firth, TYPE
Structural engineer: PCA Consulting Engineers
Services engineer: KFT Renewables
Schedule: Appointment: August 2014
Start on site: June 2015
Completion: January 2020
Photographer: © Rory Gardiner

Specialist trades:
Masonry repair: Torbay Stone Walling
Timber structure: Carpenter Oak Limited
Steelwork fabrication: C H Jones & Son
Joinery and carpentry: Maitland Roberts Cabinet Makers
Staircase joinery: Maitland Roberts Cabinet Makers
Doors and windows: Bond Joinery Limited
Electrics: Howden Electrical Solutions
Polished concrete floor: Exeter Floor Restoration Ltd
Blacksmiths: John Churchill Blacksmiths

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