如今,有机体与人造物之间的平衡已达到一个临界点。据2020年12月9日在线发表在《自然》上的论文(Global human-made mass exceeds all living biomass)所述,目前全球人造物的总质量已超越现存的生物总量。此外,造成这一趋势的主要原因是建筑材料的使用。这同时也意味着,“完全为人类设计的建筑”已经到达了生产上的极限。


Now, a balance between organisms and artefacts is at the crossover point. I encountered an article published in a scientific journal titled “Global human-made mass exceeds all living biomass” (Nature: published online 9th December 2020). According to the article, human-made artefacts referred to as anthropogenic mass have begun to surpass all global living biomass. Furthermore, it is reported that the dominant cause of this trend is construction materials. This condition implies it has reached a limit to keep generating the “architecture solely for humans” produced so far.

“Tsuruoka House” is an architecture that attempted to hold not only people but also other life forms.

▼项目概览,general view © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼河岸视角,view from the river front © Masaki hamada (kkpo)


Infrastructure for environment


Usually, the site is often divided into “gardens” and “houses” in a two-dimensional plan. However, with this design method, the relationship between nature and architecture tends to be just next to each other. Then, how about stacking “gardens” and “houses” on top of each other in a cross-sectional plan. All floors would be the ground level, providing underground-ish space below them. A relationship that influences each other is likely to emerge.

roof garden and outdoor kitchen © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼屋顶花园鸟瞰,rooftop view © Masaki hamada (kkpo)


The thickness of the soil was plotted as deep as possible so that the layered garden would be a small forest hosting a mixture of ground cover plants, shrubs, and small trees. This approach goes against modern rooftop greening, which pursues thinner soli. By opening the garden to other available life forms, providing them with a place to inhabit, and co-creating the community, the “garden” becomes an “environment.” 

▼连续的拱形构成楼板,continuous vault slabs © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼建筑立面局部,facade detailed view © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼立面细节,facade detailed view © Masaki hamada (kkpo)


▼概念草图和雨水循环分析,sketch & circulation of rain water © Kiyoaki Takeda Architects

An essential condition to design the environment to support other life forms of inhabitance was clear rainwater drainage in the soil. Following the repeated studies of the cross-section where rainwater naturally falls with gravity, a conclusion arrived at introducing continuous vault slabs. Rainwater flows from mountains to valleys of the vault slabs and is carried vertically from valleys through the core. The water flow generated the shape of the building.

▼雨水从屋顶流向拱体间的低谷,再经由核心层垂直地流入土壤 © Masaki hamada (kkpo)
Rainwater flows to valleys of the vault slabs and is carried vertically from valleys through the core


▼剖面图,section © Kiyoaki Takeda Architects

we faced unpredicted risks of nature and managed to build “infrastructure for environment” by installing over-flow pipes to cope with a downpour, designing the soil foundation with layer structure by placing high-density compost with water retention at the upper level where the plant roots can reach and positioning low-density compost with clear drainage at the lower level, and reducing the weight by limiting soil location at the rooftop and around the border of interiors and exteriors that allow transpiration to soften solar heat.

▼室内外环境的连接,the connection between indoor and outdoor environments © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼入口区域,entrance area © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼室内空间,interior view © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼厨房,kitchen © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼从餐厅望向室外,view from the dining room © Masaki hamada (kkpo)


By enveloping the space with fairly thick soil, there could be a cave-like place where you feel cooler, not feeling the heat from outside in summer. There could be a snuggly place around the floor and the core with warmed soil from the floor heating in winter.

▼休息空间,seating area © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼室内花园,indoor garden © Masaki hamada (kkpo)


▼浴室,bathroom © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼结构细部,detailed view © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

The slab fabricates a 3,500mm open high ceiling at the top, and at the valley, the height lowers to 2,000mm, reachable by hand. If the structure is reachable, eye bolts, ring nuts, and wires could be attached to plastic end cones, and it will allow us to hung hammocks, pendant lights, planters at the desired location. Reachable structures might be able to generate creativity in one’s daily life. It would be the structure to support not only the environment but also the one’s living.

▼雨中的住宅,the house on a rainy day © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼鸟瞰,aerial view © Masaki hamada (kkpo)

▼平面图,floor plans © Kiyoaki Takeda Architects

▼植被模块,Modular of plants © Kiyoaki Takeda Architects


Project Name: Tsuruoka house
Office Name: Kiyoaki Takeda Architects
Office Website: https://en.kiyoakitakeda.com/
Social Media Accounts: https://www.instagram.com/kiyoakitakeda/
Contact email: takeda@kiyoakitakeda.com
Firm Location: 3-10-12 Syakuji-cho, Nerima-ku, Tokyo, Japan 〒177-0041

Completion Year: 08/2021
Gross Built Area: 206.72㎡
Project location: Tokyo, Japan
Program: house

Lead Architects: Kiyoaki Takeda, Miyuki Sakuyama
Lead Architects e-mail: takeda@kiyoakitakeda.com

Photo Credits: Masaki hamada (kkpo)
Photographer’s Website: http://www.kkpo.co.jp/
Photographer’s e-mail: hamada@kkpo.co.jp