随着第三波疫情的加剧，哥伦比亚首都人民丧失了亲临复活节庆典现场的希望。大多哥伦比亚文化从根本上来讲是宗教文化，而为应对疫情采取的社交距离措施影响了宗教团体，尤其是在禁止大型集会的情况下，信徒们与信仰脱离，教会也陷入经济危机。随着复活节临近，Colab-19建筑事务所联系了波哥大主教区，想向他们捐赠使人们安全地参加复活节庆典的临时教堂。主教区积极做出回应，让设计师与在疫情期间受到重创的Santa Maria de la Alhambra教堂取得了联系。新冠疫情引发了该教堂的经济危机，使其无法举办大型活动，这里的会众则需要可以按社交距离规定举行复活节庆典的空间。
The people of the Colombian capital saw themselves losing hope in the idea of in-person Easter celebrations as the prospects of a third wave of Covid-19 cases intensified. Colombian culture at large is fundamentally religious, and social distancing measures in response to the pandemic have affected the religious community in particular with the prohibition of large congregations. Believers have seen themselves disconnected from their faith and churches have gone into economic crisis. As Easter approached, architecture firm Colab-19 contacted the Archdioceses of Bogotá to donate a temporary chapel that could facilitate bio-secure in-person Easter celebrations. The Archdioceses responded with great interest and put the designers in touch with the “Santa Maria de la Alhambra” Church, a community that´s experienced particularly negative repercussions during the pandemic. Covid 19 provoked an economic crisis that made the church unable to host mass gatherings. This congregation needed a space where Easter celebrations could take place in accordance to social distancing protocols.
▼项目鸟瞰，aerial view © David Carretero
▼近景，closer view © David Carretero
Colab 19事务所决定进行最终设计，并与哥伦比亚建筑师协会取得联系以完成该项目。事务所提出了曾应用于La Perseverancia项目的捐赠模式，支持年轻建筑师的协会很快就表示有兴趣加入合作。他们引荐了为教堂捐赠材料的模板公司Equinorte。来自Andemyc, Inacar, and Ferreteria Granada等公司的捐款使该项目得以完成。CESCA是一个学生集体组织，在实现Colab 19事务所提议的过程中起到重要作用。几名CESCA成员自愿帮助建造教堂，他们也学会了如何组装水平模板以及如何将其作为建筑构图中的设计元素。设计师们研究该水平体系和基督教建筑语言之间的相似性，提炼出代表波哥大城市形象的“希腊十字”。Colab 19事务所基于对现有基础设施架构的了解，探索可以超越脚手架垂直框架的模型。他们研发了一种模型，可以将水平模板作为教堂的主要组成元素。该体系具有与脚手架类似的特性，但它更适合快速水平延展，形成“柱子森林”般的美感。
▼平面与模型，plan and model © Colab-19
Colab 19 decided on a final design and contacted the Colombian Society of Architects in order to fulfill the realization of this project. The firm suggested a donation-driven model similar to the one used for their previous intervention in La Perseverancia. The Society, an institution that supports young architects, was quickly interested in joining the team. They brought in Equinorte, a formwork company that donated materials for the chapel´s construction. Additional donations from other companies such as Andemyc, Inacar, and Ferreteria Granada made the project´s completion possible. CESCA, a student-collective organization, played an important role in the realization of the Colab 19´s proposal. Several CESCA members volunteered to help build parts of the chapel. In return, the students learned how to assemble horizontal formwork and use it as a design element in architectural compositions. The designers considered similarities between this horizontal system and the architectural language present in Christian architecture, and arrived to a “Greek Cross” typology that stands out as a landmark within the urban iconography of Bogotá. Colab 19 built on their knowledge of ephemeral architecture made from pre-existing infrastructures in pursuit of a model that could go beyond the vertical framework of scaffolding. They developed a model that could use horizontal formworks as the main compositional element for the chapel´s design. This system has habitability qualities similar to those of scaffolding, but it´s better suited for rapid horizontal growth that leads to a “Column Forest” aesthetic.
▼透过树木望向小教堂，view to the chapel through trees © Alberto Roa
▼小教堂外观，external view © Alberto Roa
▼水平脚手架结构，horizontal scaffolding © Alberto Roa
小教堂原本计划容纳56人，在复活节庆典期间平均容纳80人。教堂内部达到最大容量后，其他教徒被安顿在构架的其他空间，有的人还自带座椅坐在外面。Santa Maria de la Alhambra教堂在基督教一年中最重要的日子成功恢复使用。该项目是世界上第一座使用该水平体系的公共建筑。拆卸后，建筑材料的寿命和效用是完好的，实现了可持续循环。
Originally planned for 56 people, the chapel had an average occupancy of 80 people during Easter celebrations. After the chapel´s interior reached its maximum capacity, churchgoers settled into other spaces within the structure; some brought their own chairs and sat outside. The Santa Maria de la Alhambra church was successfully rehabilitated for the most important Christian dates of the year. This is the first public building in the world made with this horizontal system. The construction materials’ longevity and utility is intact after disassembly and a sustainable cycle is created.
▼外部使用场景，external usage scenario © Alberto Roa
▼内部使用场景，internal usage scenario © Alberto Roa
▼剖透视，sectional perspective © Colab-19
Name: Alhambra´s Cross
Design by: Colab-19 + Sociedad Colombiana de Arquitectos
Sitio Web: www.colab19.co
Based in: Colombia / UK
Year of construction: 2021
Location: Bogotá, Colombia
Photography by: Alberto Roa
Drone Photos by: David Carretero
Clients: Parroquia Santa María de la Alhambra
Colaboradores: Equinorte, Andemic S.A.S, Inacar, Ferretería Granada.