赫茨尔山纪念馆是一个具有特殊意义的场所,是为以色列所有在战争中牺牲的军人而建,馆内记录着他们所有人的名字。

纪念馆传达着对和平岁月的向往。

The Mount  Herzl Memorial Hall is a unique place of commemoration. It’s raison d’etre is to be a memorial for all the fallen soldiers of the country, and thus contains all their names.

It is a project of hope for peaceful times.

▼纪念馆外观,exterior view © Amit Geron

纪念馆坐落在圣经里所描绘的平和景象之中,同时又与耶路撒冷现今繁华的街道相邻,对比之中独有一番宁静。建筑从山体中被挖掘出来,形成一个可供个人和集体体验的私密场所。在纪念馆上方,耶路撒冷石塑造出新的弧形山体,同时,起伏的砖面构成了漏斗状的穹顶,将下方的大厅与天空相连。不规则的旋涡形状使空间内部充斥着持续变化的自然光。屋顶的上端铺设以间隔的石板,使空气和自然风得以穿过。

▼与山体相融,the building was excavated in the mountain © Amit Geron

Set in a calm biblical scenery, but adjacent to the nowadays busy streets of Jerusalem, the space is isolated and quiet. It was excavated in the mountain to form an intimate space for both personal and collective experiences of commemoration. Above the hall, the mountain is reconstructed of curved topographies made of Jerusalem stone. An undulating funnel-shaped formation of bricks opens the excavated hall to the sky. Its irregular vortex shape floods the space with ever- changing natural light.  At the upper end of the roof, spaced stone slabs are designed to allow air flow and natural ventilation through the roof.

▼主空间入口,entrance to the memorial hall © Amit Geron

▼主纪念厅,ceremonial space © Amit Geron

围绕着这个“光之筒”,23000块石砖构成了一道长长的纪念墙。这道墙沿着螺旋状的坡道延伸,每块砖面上都镌刻着一位阵亡士兵的姓名、牺牲日期以及将会在每年的同一天被点亮的灯烛。

The names, engraved on stone bricks, form a long Wall of Names, which wraps around the funnel of light. Following a spiral ramp up the memorial, the wall is built of 23,000 stone bricks, each engraved with the name of a fallen soldier, his death date, and a light-candle to be lit every year on that date.

▼从二层俯瞰主厅,overlook to the hall from the upper level © Amit Geron

▼坡道围绕着光筒呈螺旋式上升,the ramp spirals around the light funnel © Amit Geron

▼镌刻着士兵姓名的墙壁,the Wall of the Names © Amit Geron

▼空间细节,interior view © Amit Geron

“光之筒”的设计是由建筑团队与苏黎世联邦理工学院的R.O.B.研究团队协商完成,采用统一的挤压铝砖构成,每块铝砖均经过CNC处理,标有固定的连接位置,便于在现场组装出不规则的独特结构。

The design development of the funnel was done in consultation with the research team R.O.B. at the ETH, Zurich. It is constructed of uniform extruded Aluminium bricks, each   CNC’d and marked to get it’s specific joints’ locations, to allow for the assembly on site of the irregular, unique structure.

▼CNC技术制成的铝砖让光筒的表面流动起来
the CNC’d aluminum bricks allow the surface of the light funnel to undulate © Amit Geron

可持续性 | Sustainability

该项目是作为纪念碑类型的建筑而规划的,因此设计的重点是要创造一个可以在几乎没有任何机械系统的情况下运作的建筑,并接近于完全的可持续。建筑中未使用空调或电力通风系统。自然通风创造了良好的温度条件,漏斗形的结构通过间隔放置的石砖可将热空气从屋顶上端排出,从而形成气流,帮助通风。

The Memorial was planned as a monument, and as such, the design focused on creating a non-building that can function almost without any mechanical systems and be close to entirely sustainable. There are no air-conditioning or electrical ventilation systems. Natural air flow creates excellent temperature conditions using the funnel shape to expel hot air out of the upper end of the roof through spaced stone slabs, thus creating air flow that ventilates the place.

▼气候设计示意,Climate Scheme © Kimmel Eshkolot Architects

建筑在日间可完全不消耗电力。自然光从屋顶的圆洞进入,经由“光之筒”的巧妙过滤,为室内带来宜人的氛围。嵌入山体的形式带来了理想的热条件。建筑的热质量与土地形成紧密关联,有利于保持稳定的温度。户外地表以浅色的耶路撒冷石覆盖,使建筑免于受到日光辐射。

There is zero use of electricity for day-light. Natural light enters through the oculus and is subtly filtered through the funnel of light, flooding the space with pleasant light. Excavated in the mountain, the Memorial Hall obtains optimal thermal conditions. The structure’s thermal- mass, integrated within the earth, keeps a steady temperature. The exterior topography was cladded with light-colored Jerusalem stone, which protects the building from radiation.

▼自然光从屋顶的圆洞进入,为室内带来宜人的氛围 © Amit Geron
Natural light enters through the oculus and is subtly filtered through the funnel of light

当地材料的运用是设计中的一个关键因素,可以帮助降低成本、提高可持续性。耶路撒冷石覆盖的立面给人以安静和低调的感觉,同时呼应了附近山脉和墓园的材料肌理,从而将纪念馆与耶路撒冷周围城市的环境融为一体。

Using local materials such as the Jerusalem-stone was a key element in the design process both for budget constraints and for sustainability reasons, aiming to integrate the building with the surrounding city of Jerusalem. It is intended to be unimposing from the exterior, and to echo the texture of the adjacent mountains and cemetery.

▼耶路撒冷石塑造出新的弧形山体,the mountain is reconstructed of curved topographies made of Jerusalem stone © Amit Geron

▼场地平面图,site plan © Kimmel Eshkolot Architects

▼一层平面图,plan © Kimmel Eshkolot Architects

▼屋顶平面图,roof plan © Kimmel Eshkolot Architects

▼剖面图,sections © Kimmel Eshkolot Architects

Architecture: Kimmel Eshkolot Architects (in collaboration with Kalush Chechick Architects)
Architects in charge: Etan Kimmel, Limor Amrani
www.kimmel.co.il
27 Chelouche street, Tel Aviv, Israel
Photographer: Amit Geron
Client: Ministry of Defence – families and Commemoration Department
Structural engineering: Haim & Yehiel Steinberg Structural Engineering
Construction manager: E.D. Rahat Engineering Coordination and Management Ltd.
Eliezer Rahat, Daniel Rahat
http://edrahat.com/home2-nivoslider_en.html
Design phase Manager and coordinator: Eran Garber E.S.L Engineers
http://esleng.co.il/
Contractor Firm: Green Construction Ltd.
Project manager: Nadav Rubin
Engineer: Eran Rosenberg
http://www.green-construction.co.il/
Lighting Design: Amir Brenner Lighting Design
https://www.amirbrener.co.il/
Light Bell optimization
1.R/O/B Technologies – ETH Zurich
2.IDF Merkava and Armored Vehicles Directorate
Aluminum bricks manufacturer: BTI Metals Center Inc.
3D Molds manufacturer: XENOM

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