背景 | BACKGROUND

通过近二十年的监测可以了解周口店遗址第一地点一直面临以风雨侵蚀为主要病因的一系列严重病害,如风化、剥落和失稳等。尤其是2012年北京“7.21”特大自然灾害期间,暴雨过后,洞底及西剖面发现有雨水迅速积聚后又消失的现象。后经物探勘察证明洞底存在大的溶蚀裂隙及破碎带,严重危害整体稳定性。国家文物局2013年8月将保护建筑方案报联合国教科文组织世界遗产中心备案;2013年11月收到国际古迹遗址理事会审核意见,同意实施该项目。经过认真研究和反复推敲,于2014年11月完成施工图设计。2015年5月开始动工,历时两年,于2018年8月底通过竣工验收,并于2018年9月底正式对公众开放。

▼视频,video © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

According to the data analysis of a 20 years long monitoring work, the Locality 1Archaeological Site of Zhoukoudian has been threatened by severe hazards as wind and rain erosions, weathering, crumbling and instability, etc. After the severe rain storm on 21st July 2012, water catchment was discovered at the bottom and the west section of the cave and soon disappeared. Through geophysical prospecting, large fissures and fracture zones were found at the bottom of the cave, which endangered the overall stability of the site. The plan of a new protective shelter was reported to the World Heritage Centre of UNESCO by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China in August 2013. ICOMOS approved the project in November 2013 in the replying letter. The construction drawings were finished in November 2014 with prude and full consideration. The construction work commenced in May 2015 and completed in August 2018. The shelter was open to public in September 2018.

▼项目概览,overview © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼从公路看建筑,view from the road © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

 

保护 | CONSERVATION

保护建筑的设计目标是阻断雨、雪、冰雹,在不隔绝自然环境的前提下减缓风、温度、湿度等环境要素的剧烈变化,以实现稳妥、改良性的保护策略。

The protective shelter was designed to prevent the site from rain, snow, hail and other threatening factors. A mild and gradual conservation strategy was applied that the violent vibration of wind temperature and humidity be reduced by the shelter, while the site still connected to its original natural environment.

▼建筑表皮,the blades of the skin © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

 

措施 | INTERVENTIONS

保护棚遵守最小干预和可逆性原则,采用大跨度空间单层网壳结构,横跨猿人洞遗址,在南侧山顶及北侧山脚各设置一排落脚点。落脚点均选在敏感区域之外平坦岩层之上,不接触遗迹及其赋存岩壁,以此覆盖需要保护的最小面积。整体建筑施工全部采用场外预制场内拼接,最大限度降低施工期间对场地的干扰,也确保了可以倒序拆除,完整还原原始面貌。

A principle of minimal and reversible interventions was applied on the project. The single layer reticulated shell structure of large span, which shelters the Peking man Cave site, is supported by the two rows of footholds situated on the peak of the hill on the south and at the foot on the north, to cover a least necessary area of the cave and to keep away from the site per se and its precipice. The footholds were situated on the flat rock formation. All the components of the shelter were prefabricated and assembled on site to keep the disturbance on the site during construction work to the minimal extent, and to ensure the possibility of dismantling in future to restore the environment to its original condition.

▼遗址入口,the entrance © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼入口楼梯,the stairs at the entrance © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

 

融入环境 | Blend with Environment

以现存山体等高线为线索,推导出猿人洞未坍塌前的山体形态,以此为基础得到保护建筑的整体造型,使新建筑从形态上与周围山体环境融为一体。建筑的外表皮为绿植屋面,按设计目标两年内可以成形,使其隐没在绿树从中。内表皮抽象模拟山洞意向,向观众传递遗址地环境信息。

The morphology of the mountain before the collapsing of the Peking Man Cave was deduced from clues as contour lines of the current landform to shape the overall form of the shelter. The new structure was consequently able to blend with its immediate surroundings morphologically. A green roof was designed as the outer skin of the shelter, which would hide itself into the woods after two years of properly growing up as expected. Meanwhile, the inner skin of the shelter imitates the rock surfaces inside the cave to remind the visitors of the geography of the archaeological site.

▼楼梯通向地下遗址,stairs leading to underground site © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼地下步道,the underground trail © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

 

结构 | STRUCTURE

保护建筑采用空间单层网壳结构,以不规则曲面覆盖3700余平方米,南北跨度77.5米,东西跨度54.5米,结构落脚点高差30.7米,最大高度35.7米。

The irregular curved surface of space single reticulated shell structure covers an area of about 3700 m2. The east-west span is 54.5m and the north-south 77.5m. The height difference between the two rows of footholds is 30.7m, while the maximum height of the shelter from the ground outside is 35.7m.

▼看向上方观景台,view of the observation deck © 董萌

▼从内部看保护棚结构,view of the shelter from the inside © 董萌

 

构造 | DETAILS

采用双层表皮,形成温湿度等环境因素变化的缓冲层。内外表皮叶片由参数化计算自动生成,叶片搭接紧密,雨水通过有组织的方式,由保护棚最高处叶片向周围叶片逐层下降排出,其间隙提供均匀的自然采光和通风。其中上叶片420片,下叶片405片,总共825片。

The double-skin creates a buffering layer to alleviate the abrupt changes of natural factors including temperature and humidity. The blades of the skin were generated by parametric calculations on computer, which overlap closely with one another to realize an organized drainage of rainwater, while providing daylight of uniformity and mild ventilation There are 825 blades in all, of which 420 blades are on the outer skin and 405 on the inter skin.

▼参数化生成的叶片,the blades of the skin generated by parametric calculations © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

 

技术 | TECHNOLOGY

通过数字风洞技术,以猿人洞小环境气象监测数据为基础,在设计全过程对形体高低、开缝大小、温度湿度、采光通风等诸多因素进行模拟,为设计提供调整依据,确保保护方案的科学合理。

Base on the meteorological monitoring data of micro-environment in Peking Man Cave, analog computations were conducted through numerical wind tunnel techniques, to simulate the height of the shelter, gaps between blades, temperature, humidity, daylight, ventilation and other variates. The results provided evidences of design efficiency, and assisted architects to develop a scientific and reasonable programme.

▼多媒体展示,multimedia display of the site © 董萌

 

展示 | INTERPRETATION& EXPLANATION

以猿人洞洞壁为数字展示平台,采用多媒体技术,重点在西侧壁展示发掘信息,同时在北侧壁介绍猿人泂发掘历史背景和总体成果,使公众在遗址环境中身临其境了解遗址价值,达到最佳的阐释效果。

The precipice of Peking Man Cave is employed as display platform. Information of excavation process is displayed on the west side, while the historical backgrounds and research findings are explained on the north side through multimedia technologies. The immersive experience would impress the visitors of the significance of this site and explain the information to the best effect.

▼灯光效果,the lighting view © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼夜景,aerial view © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼总平面,site plan © 清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼平面图,plan ©清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼115米平面,125m elevation plan ©清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼115米平面,115m elevation plan ©清华大学建筑设计研究院

▼剖面图,sections ©清华大学建筑设计研究院

项目名称: 北京周口店遗址第1地点(猿人洞)保护建筑
建筑事务所: 清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司
事务所网站: www.thad.com.cn
联络邮箱: wangjiayi@thad.com.cn
占地面积:2878㎡
楼层面积: 3487㎡
项目地址: 北京周口店(Beijing, China)
摄影师: 五季、高原、董萌
项目参与者
项目总负责:吕舟
工程负责人:崔光海
建筑专业:汪静、揭小凤、李京
结构专业:马智刚、李增超、蒋炳丽
给排水专业:郭汉英、刘玖玲、王晶
电气专业:郭红艳、张微、汪昊天

Project name: The Protective Shelter of Locality 1 Archaeological Site of Zhoukoudian Peking Man Cave
Architect’ Firm: Tsinghua University architectural design and Research Institute Co., Ltd
General Leader:LU Zhou
Chief Architect: CUI Guanghai
Architects: WANG Jing, JIE Xiaofeng, LI Jing
Structure Engineers: MA Zhigang, LI Zengchao, JIANG Bingli
Fire fighting & Plumbing Engineers: GUO Hanying, LIU Jiuling, WANG Jing
Electronical Engineers: GUO Hongyan, ZHANG Wei, WANG Haotian

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