住宅的平面布局以及各部分的排列方式常常会以“housing typology”这一词汇来表示:它定义并整理了常见的住房特征和类型。在建筑学中,这是一个众所周知的概念,尤其是对于公寓和独栋房屋等住宅空间而言。“类型”通常反映在平面模型当中,并伴随着房间分布模式的迭代。

The architectural classification that is applied to how an apartment plan is distributed, how its parts are arranged is frequently referred as housing typology: it defines and catalogues common characteristics or types. It is a quite well known concept in architecture, and particularly in spaces dedicated to inhabitation: apartments, houses. Typologies are usually reflected in plan models, with iterations of room distribution patterns. 

▼项目概览,preview © Francisco Nogueira



© Francisco Nogueira

Inevitably, in order to apply a certain type of plan to a given situation or context, one needs to decide (in rare cases) or inherit (in most cases) to which kind of living it corresponds to. At this point the exercise becomes quite thorny. Norms and regulations dictate how we navigate into housing typologies and they are fabricated using certain notions of what a household might be and how it should behave in its intimate space. Cultural habits bring in conventions regarding how a family is supposed to look like, and how it is assumed that it will occupy the house spaces.

Thus, the catalogue of possibilities is drastically reduced since, unsurprisingly, the household traditional kit of parts comprehends a heterosexual husband, wife and one or two kids with intimacy spaces ranging from the more “public” as the dining room to the more private as the parents’ room bathroom. The greatest percentage of apartments and houses around us belong to this hard-to-question model.

▼一个简单的公寓,a simple place to live
© Francisco Nogueira

the open, undefined space for living© Francisco Nogueira

▼窗帘分隔空间,curtains separate the space
© Francisco Nogueira

▼走廊,corridor © Francisco Nogueira

在2018年,苹果公司推出了memoji表情,可以通过追踪面部动作来创建专属于用户个人的动态形象。该形象将逐步学习如何创建一套全新的情绪目录,从而帮助我们具体地定义出一个数字化的自我。这其中所反映的其实是一种反常的“倒退”,正如Shoshana Zuboff在其对于监测资本主义(Surveillance Capitalism)的广泛研究中所揭露的那样:我们为了定制个人的形象而做出一系列可以被分类的表情和面部姿态,从某种程度上来说,这等同于我们将自身屈从于应用程序本身的技术限制。这种在我们的脸和手机屏幕之间来回切换的过程模糊了我们对自己的控制权,以至于我们可能永远也不会知道,我们的面部表情和情绪是否能够真正地通过屏幕上的形象传达出来,而程序本身的技术水平是不是实际上制约了我们的微笑。

In 2018 Apple came up with the memojis, a bit behind his Asian competitors but in a sexier look. Memojis create avatar of ourselves by tracking our facial movements. The idea is that this avatar will learn progressively how to create a catalogue of emotional gestures that would specifically define our digital self. The perversion comes, as Shoshana Zuboff has exposed in her extensive research on Surveillance Capitalism, from a continuously reversed movement:  providing our avatar with a series of classifiable emotional facial gestures, we somehow subjugate these gestures to the technological limitations of the app. This going back and forth between our face and the phone screen blurs our power of command to a point where we will probably never really know if we have informed the avatar about our facial emotional possibilities or if its technological capacities have conditioned our smiles.

▼MARIA是一个无系统的物理空间,它等待着人们以最丰富的、没有偏见和成见的方式去居住,MARIA is a disconnected physical space waiting to be inhabited in the richest way possible, without prejudices and directed ways of inhabitation © Francisco Nogueira

▼空间细节,detailed view © Francisco Nogueira

我想这一道理同样适用于住宅类型的设计。我们永远不知道自己正在被谁指挥。但作为建筑师和设计师,我们又很清楚我们所面临的既有条件并没有真正地考虑到多样性。我们在被迫工作,好像每一个空间都必须针对于某一种具体而单一的生活形式。那么到底是谁在设计我们的居住空间?哪些强加在住宅类型上的、没有被说出来的价值观到底是什么?在我们的住宅中,是否存在一个服务于既定家庭成员之外的空间?一个人住的公寓和一家四口的公寓是否也该拥有类似的布局和组织? 它可以灵活地变化吗?当代家庭的生活方式又和过去有着怎样的不同?

I guess that the same applies to the typological conditioning of our spaces. We will never know who is at command. But we do know, as architects, designers, that these conditions do not consider diversity. We are forced to work as if every space was addressed to one single category of non-gendered, monolithic households. Who is thus designing our living spaces? What are the unsaid values imposed to housing typologies? Is there a space, in our houses, for companion-species? Does an apartment for a single person respond to the same space organization than one for a family of four? Does it allow appropriation? Flexibility in use? Are the needs of a contemporary family the same as in the past?

▼洗浴区,bath area © Francisco Nogueira


MARIA is just an apartment, a place for an occupant that can potentially always sleep in a couch, live with a dog, cook on the balcony, eat on the floor, read in the bathroom, stand on the kitchen counter, and decide that she does not need to catalogue her multiple, rich and diverse everyday gestures and usage rituals to create an avatar of herself. MARIA is a disconnected physical space waiting to be inhabited in the richest way possible, without prejudices and directed ways of inhabitation. As a space, MARIA has an undefined sexual identity.

▼户外空间,outdoor space
© Francisco Nogueira

© Francisco Nogueira

▼场地平面图,site plan © BUREAU

▼平面图,plan © BUREAU

▼剖面图,sections © BUREAU

Project: BUREAU (Daniel Zamarbide, Carine Pimenta, Galliane Zamarbide)
Concept design: Daniel Zamarbide, João Paixão, Carine Pimenta, Francisco Castelo Branco
Construction drawings and documentation: Carine Pimenta, Jolan Haidinger, Tobias Vonder Mühll
Construction supervision: Carine Pimenta, Jolan Haidinger
Publication drawings: Driss Veyry
Location: Lisbon, Portugal
Program: Apartment renovation
Area: 88 m2
Completion date: July, 2021
Photographer: Francisco Nogueira