继2003年赢得弗拉芒政府委托的国际竞赛后,荷兰KAAN Architecten建筑事务所紧锣密鼓地完成了比利时安特卫普皇家美术馆(又称KMSKA)的翻新项目(包括复杂的总体规划、改造和扩建),为这座19世纪的华丽建筑增添了一份现代魅力。

除了作为安特卫普最后一批具有显著新古典主义特征的建筑范例之一,博物馆还以其丰富的、跨越7个世纪的艺术藏品而闻名:从弗拉芒原始流派到表现主义,从绘画到素描与雕塑,无一不可在馆中寻见。该项目由弗拉芒政府下辖的文化、青年和媒体部门投资约1亿欧元,旨在对既有建筑进行整体翻新。

After winning an international competition in 2003 commissioned by the Flemish Government, Dutch architecture office KAAN Architecten has worked intensively on the complex masterplan, renovation and extension of the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp (Belgium), also known as KMSKA (Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen), bringing contemporary allure to a glorious, overlooked beauty of the 19th century.

In addition to being one of the last examples of bold neoclassical architecture in the city of Antwerp, the museum houses a rich art collection that embraces seven centuries of art: from Flemish Primitives to expressionists, from paintings to drawings and sculptures. The Department of Culture, Youth and Media of the Flemish Government has invested approximately 100 million euro in the overall renovation of the building.

▼美术馆主立面,The front museum façade © Mediamixer

美术馆建筑矗立在16世纪的城堡遗迹之上,与城市独特的星形肌理相交织。原建筑最初由建筑师Jacob Winders和Frans van Dyck在19世纪设计,于1890年向公众开放。

KMSKA被构想为一座日光充盈的美术馆,参观者既可以在长廊中欣赏令人惊叹的艺术作品,又能够通过一系列观景平台和内部中庭来欣赏城市景观。20世纪期间,美术馆的展陈设计得到调整和更新,为建筑的布局带来了根本性的变化,优化了原本的交通路径以及与城市的连接关系。

▼19世纪博物馆与星形城市肌理 © KAAN Architecten
19th-century star-shaped urban layout

Rising above the remains of the 16th century citadel and intertwined within the remarkable star-shaped urban fabric, the museum was originally designed in the 19th century by architects Jacob Winders and Frans van Dyck. It opened to the public in 1890.

KMSKA was conceived as a daylight museum, where visitors would enjoy a promenade surrounded by stunning artworks as well as the external landscape, witnessed through its multiple lookouts over the city and the inner patios. During the 20th century, new developments in exhibition design and museum distribution brought fundamental changes to the building’s layout, modifying the original circulation route and the connection with the city.

▼美术馆屋顶鸟瞰,原处是斯凯尔特河 © Mediamixer
The museum roof and skylights from above, aerial view towards the river Scheldt

在2000年代初期,KAAN事务所开始着手博物馆的总体规划、改造以及扩建,安特卫普的南部区域也开始通过公共投资和城市改造而逐步发展和兴盛起来。在该项目中,建筑团队采取了一项大胆举措:将美术馆的扩建部分完全地隐藏在原始的内部结构当中,使其无法从外部看到,以此来强调这座19世纪建筑杰作在飞速发展的城市环境中所具有的价值与适应力。

扩建部分与宏伟的历史结构形成了共存,同时保持了后者的不朽特征。KAAN事务所联合创始人及建筑师Dikkie Scipio教授表示:“21世纪的美术馆与19世纪的美术馆在尺度、光线和氛围上都展现出强烈的、具有象征性的差异,但它们如今同时为迎接未来的展览提供了灵活的场地。”

▼新旧体量合二为一:21世纪博物馆的H形结构被建造在旧博物馆的四个露台之上© KAAN Architecten
Two museums in one building:The H-shaped structure of the 21s​ t​-century museum emerges, built on the position of the four original patios

In the early 2000’s, while KAAN Architecten started working on the museum’s masterplan, renovation and extension, the southern neighbourhood of Antwerp began to progressively gain greater value through public investments and urban transformation. One of the architects’ most intrepid initiatives was to completely conceal the extension of the museum within its existing inner structure — the new addition is not visible from the outside — in order to highlight the heritage value and the resilience of the outstanding 19th century building, nestled in this fast-changing district.

The extension co-exists with the powerful historical structure without diluting its monumental character.“Both the 21st and the 19th century museum couldn’t be more different and more intense. They embody an emblematic contrast in dimensions, light and atmosphere, while being designed as flexible spaces to welcome future exhibitions.”- affirms Prof. Dikkie Scipio, architect and co-founder of KAAN Architecten.

▼21世纪新美术馆展厅,21s​t​-century museum exhibition hall © Stijn Bollaert

翻新后的安特卫普皇家美术馆分为3个区域,分别是公共入口区(感受)、中央展览区(观看)以及位于建筑后方的办公区域(工作)。以Leopold de Wael广场为起点,参观者可通过大楼梯进入美术馆:修复后的橡木大门通往入口大厅,后者包含一系列美术馆设施,如互动信息区、餐厅、礼堂、带有咖啡角的书店以及通往街道层的环形楼梯。街道层设有图书馆、衣帽间和服务于大型参观团体的第二入口。

▼功能分区示意,programme distribution© KAAN Architecten

▼路径示意,museum routing© KAAN Architecten

KMSKA is now divided into three realms: a public entrance area (feel), central exhibition spaces (see) and offices (work) at the rear side of the building. From Leopold de Wael square, a grand staircase grants access to the museum: large restored oak doors open onto the entrance hall, which features several museum facilities such as an interactive information zone, a café, an auditorium, a bookshop with a coffee corner and a circular staircase to the street floor level where a library, a cloakroom and a second entrance for large groups are located.

▼入口大厅,保留了19世纪的马赛克地面
The museum entrance hall, featuring an original 19t​h​-century mosaic © Sebastian van Damme

入口大厅通往宏伟的Keyserzaal中庭(以艺术家Nicaise de Keyser的名字命名),该空间的重要作用是引导参观者进入两条不同的路径与体验:沿大楼梯向上,可到达翻新后的19世纪美术馆的主楼层;继续向前走,则可进入新建的21世纪美术馆。

The entrance hall leads to the majestic de Keyserzaal (named after artist Nicaise de Keyser), which serves the pivotal role of introducing the visitors to two different routes and experiences: one, going up the grand staircase, leads to the main floor of the renovated 19th century museum; the other, continuing straight ahead, leads visitors to the new 21st century museum.

▼连接入口大厅与首层的旋转楼梯
The circular staircase connecting the entrance hall to the museum’s ground floor © Stijn Bollaert

在旧博物馆,参观者将穿越一排被漆成暗粉色、绿色和红色的展览空间;橡木门、高耸的立柱和天花板上的石膏装饰共同营造出古老而华丽的氛围。翻新过程中选择的色彩搭配方案与博物馆原始的颜色有着直接的关联。

While visiting the historical museum, guests walk through an enfilade of exhibition rooms tinted in dark pink, green and red; oak doors, tall columns and ceiling ornaments in plasterwork collectively convey a feeling of ancient grandeur. The colour palette chosen during the renovation process directly relates to the museum’s original colours.

▼19世纪美术馆展厅,19t​h​-century museum exhibition halls © Stijn Bollaert

▼一排被漆成暗粉色、绿色和红色的展览空间
an enfilade of exhibition rooms tinted in dark pink, green and red © Stijn Bollaert

▼19世纪展厅空间序列 © Sebastian van Damme
Sequence of exhibitions halls in the 19t​h​-century museum

在二层,大尺寸的窗户从视觉上将明亮又适宜的内部空间与周围环境联系起来;在三层,宽阔的玻璃屋顶为主厅带来光线,造型优雅的沙发为参观者提供了欣赏大师杰作的视角。Rubens大厅和Van Dyck大厅将展示美术馆的特殊馆藏,因而被设置在建筑最核心的位置。艺术品仓库被迁移至两个主展厅下方的防空洞内(位于街道层)。

On the first floor, large windows visually connect the bright yet modest interiors with the surroundings, while on the second floor, the main halls are lit by wide glass canopies and equipped with elegant sofas for those enjoying the art masters. The impressive Rubens and Van Dyck halls will host some of the highlights of the collection and are therefore positioned at the very core of the building. The collection depot has been relocated inside the original location of the air-raid shelter bunker underneath the two main exhibition halls, at the street level.

▼Rubens展厅被设置在建筑最核心的位置,用于展示美术馆的特殊馆藏 © Sebastian van Damme
The Rubens hall will host some of the highlights of the collection and is therefore positioned at the very core of the building

▼中央展厅细节,既有的装饰得到细致的修复,同时谨慎置入了新的气候系统 © Sebastian van Damme
A detail from the central exhibition hall: the original ornaments have been finely renovated, subtly integrating a new climate system

一些高度大于门的巨型画作可以通过建造于19世纪的原始舱口从仓库搬运到楼上。在这个位置上,一条细长的舱口轨道垂直地延伸,可将画作运送至相邻的展厅。

Extra-large paintings, taller than the high doors, can travel from the depot through one of the original 19th century hatches to the upper floors. From this position and following a specific route, a track of slender vertical hatches can deliver the paintings to the contiguous halls.

▼细长的舱口轨道可将画作运送至相邻的展厅 © Stijn Bollaert
A track of slender vertical hatches can deliver the paintings to the contiguous halls

▼艺术品仓库被迁移至两个主展厅下方的防空洞内
The collection depot relocated inside the original bomb free zone, before the construction of the artworks storage premises © Karin Borghouts

随着路线的深入,参观者将进入21世纪的新展览空间。这是一个完全自主的场地,它被设置在四个既有天井的内部,巧妙地在美术馆结构的核心处展开。这些空间由明亮的白色展厅构成,顶层展厅的屋顶上分布着198个朝北的三棱锥形天窗,使阳光得以从23米的高度、经由4个大型采光井倾泻至地面。除了引导和散射光线之外,这些天窗还能通过其特殊的结构发挥照明的功能,以弥补季节性的日光损失。新美术馆的立体高光泽地板进一步增强了这些空间的炫目效果。一系列强烈的垂直空间体验消除了物质带来的边界感,实现了参观体验与建筑历史特征的融合。

Continuing their visit through the museum, visitors approach the new 21st century exhibition space, a completely autonomous venue, built within the four original patios and wisely unfolding at the heart of the museum’s structure. These spaces consist of bright white exhibition halls, where daylight beams in form 198 triple triangulated north-facing roof elements located on the top hall and flooding through four large light wells, measuring up to 23 metres floor-to-ceiling. These skylights are designed to guide and diffuse the light, and their structure also features additional lighting to compensate for the seasonal loss of daylight. The three-dimensional urethane high-gloss floors of the new museum enhance the dazzling effect of these spaces. A sequence of strong vertical spatial experiences dematerialize the visitor’s experience and juxtapose it with the historical identity of the building.

▼通向21世纪美术馆的路径,Access to the 21s​t​-century museum © Sebastian van Damme

▼层高充裕的21世纪展厅
21s​t​-century exhibition hall and its impressive height © Stijn Bollaert

▼展厅和电梯,21s​t​-century exhibition hall and elevator to the upper floors © Stijn Bollaert

▼展厅内设有通往上层的巨大楼梯,上方是四个大型采光井之一 © Stijn Bollaert
A monumental staircase leading to the upper exhibition spaces. Above is one of the four large light wells

▼采光井和天窗,Light well and skylights © Stijn Bollaert

▼21世纪美术馆展厅空间,21s​t​-century museum exhibition hall © Stijn Bollaert

© Sebastian van Damme

▼楼梯细节,A detail of the monumental staircase in the 21s​t​-century museum © Sebastian van Damme

▼采光井空间和家具细节,Detail of one of the lightwells and integrated furniture © Stijn Bollaert

▼顶层展厅的屋顶上分布着三棱锥形天窗,triple triangulated roof elements located on the top hall © Stijn Bollaert

▼展厅细节,Detailed view © Stijn Bollaert

▼天窗细节,skylights © Sebastian van Damme

在扩建部分对既有建筑体块进行“切割”的位置增加了细腻的大理石鑲嵌层,呼应了19世纪美术馆优雅的材料特征。一座细长而显著的线性楼梯将首层与顶层的展厅连接起来,同时为展示蚀刻版画和素描等精细艺术品的中间楼层提供了路径。通过四个采光井,亦可望见这些带有深蓝色饰面的黑暗方盒子空间。这样的配色方案与既有建筑采用的颜色有所联系,但在变化上更加生动和亮眼。

Where the new extension ‘cuts’ the museum’s solid mass, subtle marble inlays have been added, echoing the elegant 19th century museum’s materiality. A long, impressive linear staircase connects the new exhibition halls on the first floor to those located on the top floor, also granting access to an intermediate floor, which is dedicated to displaying delicate artworks such as etchings and drawings. These dark cabinets are also visible through the four lightwells and are characterized by intense dark blue. The chosen colour scheme is related to the original colour palette but uses brighter variations.

▼线性楼梯将首层与顶层的展厅连接起来 © Stijn Bollaert
An impressive long linear staircase connects the new exhibition halls at the first floor to the ones located at the top floor

为了在新美术馆建筑中分配必要的空间,并容纳先进的技术装置,设计团队做出了一系列慎重的举措,例如将Rubens大厅和Van Dyck大厅之间的原始墙壁进行移动,以便与上方的蓝色空间和新展厅衔接起来。

In order to allocate the necessary space for the new museum premises and its advanced technical installation, careful decisions have been taken, such as shifting the position of the original wall between the Rubens and Van Dyck halls in order to bridge the blue cabinets and the new exhibition halls above.

▼从二层望向采光井
One of the lightwells as seen from the first level © Stijn Bollaert

▼带有深蓝色饰面的黑暗方盒子空间,Dark cabinets characterized by intense dark blue © Stijn Bollaert

另外一个独特的新空间是二层5.5mx9m的旋转墙,其灵活性为物流带来了方便,使艺术品或大尺寸物体能够被搬进宽阔的艺术品升降机。

Another remarkable feature of the renovation is the 5,5 x 9metre pivoting wall on the first floor that can rotate to facilitate logistic flows and to allow artworks or large objects to access the wide art-elevator.

▼二层旋转墙,pivoting wall on the first floor © Stijn Bollaert

▼二层展厅,Exhibition hall on the first floor © Stijn Bollaert

KAAN事务所的设计方案让游客得以在享受一段迷人旅程的同时,自然地探索新旧博物馆之间的对比与对话关系,层层递进地感受它们各自的真实面貌。这是一种难以预知却又始终保持着平衡的体验:两条路径都充满挑战并致力于为艺术服务。

KAAN Architecten has created an architectural concept for KMSKA that takes the form of an enchanting journey where visitors explore the two contrasting and dialoguing museums, which unveil themselves little by little. The experience is never predictable yet always in balance: both routes are challenging and designed to serve the art.

▼展厅楼梯,monumental staircase leading to the upper exhibition spaces © Stijn Bollaert

▼采光井为展厅带来漫射光线 © Stijn Bollaert
The lightwell vertically diffuses the light coming from the 3r​d​ level

▼展厅细节,21s​t​-century museum exhibition hall © Stijn Bollaert

KAAN事务所目前正在进行安特卫普皇家美术馆的办公空间更新工作,Dikkie Scipio也在负责监督美术馆的总体规划。1期和2期工程的完成无疑是美术馆改造项目的一个重要里程碑。不过,在美术馆能够正式向公众开放之前,还要经历办公室装修、其后系统的运行测试、景观设计、美术馆花园设计、艺术品迁入以及入口处马赛克艺术品的制作等一系列过程。

▼画作的搬迁,The relocation of the artworks to the depot © Karin Borghouts

▼馆藏仓库,The collection depot © Karin Borghouts

KAAN Architecten is currently working on the office spaces integrating the KMSKA structure, and Dikkie Scipio is additionally supervising the Masterplan at the museum. The renovation of the museum takes time. The completion of the construction phases 1 and 2 is certainly an important milestone. However, there are other important goals to reach before the museum will be able to open its doors to the public. These include: the renovation of the offices, operational testing of the climate system, scenography, the museum garden, moving in the artworks and the creation of a new art mosaic in the entrance. 

▼美术馆夜景,The front museum façade at night © Mediamixer

▼场地平面图,site plan © KAAN Architecten

▼首层平面图,plan level 00 © KAAN Architecten

▼二层平面图,plan level 01 © KAAN Architecten

▼三层平面图,plan level 02 © KAAN Architecten

▼四层平面图,plan level 03 © KAAN Architecten

▼屋顶平面图,roof plan © KAAN Architecten

▼剖面图A-A,section A-A © KAAN Architecten

▼剖面图B-B,section B-B © KAAN Architecten

如需获知美术馆的具体开放信息及未来发展的相关资讯,可访问美术馆官方网站 www.kmska.be/verbouwing
We invite you to visit the museum’s official website (www.kmska.be/verbouwing) for more information about the museum’s upcoming developments.

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