圣拉斐尔医院是欧洲医院的杰出典范,其医疗保健活动得到了大学科系科研和培训的支持。新的外科和急诊中心是专注于医疗人性化原则的顶尖建筑,旨在爱护病患和环境,以可持续的方式打造出美观的标志性建筑。

San Raffaele Hospital is a model of European excellence, where healthcare activities are supported by scientific research and training with a university department. The building of the new Surgical and Urgent Care Pole is a state-of-the-art structure focused on the principles of hospital humanisation. The project aims to take care of the patients and the environment. An approach translated in the choice of sustainable and, at the same time, architecturally beautiful and iconic solutions.

▼项目概览,General view ©Duccio Malagamba

▼建筑与环境的关系,Relationship between the building and surroundings ©Duccio Malagamba

 

关于本项目
The project

该项目因独特的造型而得名“冰山”,同时,它作为既有医院的扩建部分,没有选择水平扩张,而是垂直发展,融合了功能与美学。

The so-called “Iceberg,” because of its peculiar shape, was created as an extension in the heart of the existing hospital, abandoning the scheme of horizontal squares to rise in height, combining functionality and aesthetics.

▼外观:“冰山”般的建筑造型,Appearance: “Iceberg”-like shape ©Duccio Malagamba

▼由街道望向建筑,Street view ©Duccio Malagamba

新大楼由两个在建筑和功能上相辅相成的要素组成:容纳手术室、重症监护室和急诊室等医院基本职能的技术基座;以及容纳病房、医生办公室和门诊部的塔楼。二者皆满足国际水平上日益增长的护理需求。技术基座仅占据地上一层,包括形式在内,整体以实用为标准,从而确保内部活动的功能性和灵活性, 并提供易于识别且简短的通道和路线。而塔楼则被誉为受欢迎的“疗愈之地”。建筑由曲面组成,与周围的建成环境相呼应,同时,它还伴有向上延展的、可以消减体量感的细长线条,创造出清晰、可识别的元素。塔楼成为医院的地标,给使用者带来光线和轻盈感。

▼设计手稿,Sketches ©Mario Cucinella Architects

The new building consists of two significant elements that complement each other both architecturally and functionally: the technical plate that houses the most essential hospital functions (such as the surgical block, intensive care, and emergency room) and the tower, which houses the wards, doctors’ offices, and outpatient departments. Both complement the growing demand for care at the international level. The technical plate, which is only one level above ground level, is marked by the utmost pragmatism, including its form, to ensure the functionality and flexibility of the activities housed and guarantee recognisable and brief accesses and routes. On the other hand, the tower is conceived as a welcoming ‘place of healing.’ It is composed of curved surfaces in answer to the built context and marked by slender lines towards the top that relieve the masses, creating an element of exceptional clarity and recognisability. The tower becomes a landmark gifting users with the light of its facades and the lightness of its volume.

▼立面,Facade ©Duccio Malagamba

▼建筑由基座和塔楼组成 ©Duccio Malagamba
The building consists of the base and the tower

▼塔楼部分,Tower ©Duccio Malagamba

▼基座部分,Base ©Duccio Malagamba

立面上轻微的弧度使其能够区别于病房的外部视野,并改善了透过立面中央部分的自然光线。此外,围护结构的另一特色是位于建筑四角的大面积玻璃,玻璃内设有供病患使用的公共客厅,也可以用作非正式的会面场所。在冬季,这些空间作为太阳能温室,减少了室内对供暖的需求,而在夏季,这里安有空调,满足了人们对舒适度和温度控制的需求。光线和绿植等自然元素也被融入到设计中,提高了室内空间的品质以及使用者的幸福感。病房和办公室均向这些绿色空间开放。设计方一直在追求与医院空间品质及其人性化要求密切相关的可持续发展理念,这一理念的实现得益于他们对生活空间美学品质的研究,最终将其作为促进康复的手段。

The slight curvature of the elevations makes it possible to differentiate the external view from the patient rooms and improves access to natural light in the central part of the façade. Another characteristic element of the envelope is the large glass surfaces at the corners of the building, where communal living rooms for the patients act as informal meeting places. In winter, these spaces serve as solar greenhouses, reducing the need for heating, while in summer, they are air-conditioned to meet the demand for comfort and thermo-hygrometric control. Natural elements – light and greenery – integrated into the design increase the quality of the interior spaces and the well-being of the users. The solutions open visually to the green spaces from both the patient rooms and the offices. The studio has pursued an idea of sustainability closely linked to the quality of hospital space and its humanisation, achieved thanks to research into the aesthetic quality of living spaces as a means of promoting healing.

▼立面上轻微的弧度 ©Duccio Malagamba
The slight curvature of the elevations

▼建筑四角的大面积玻璃 ©Duccio Malagamba
The large glass surfaces at the corners of the building

 

可持续发展及材料方针
Approach to sustainability and materials

新的外科和急救中心完全被玻璃包裹,外面附着密集的编织立面,由具有双重生物气候功能的通高垂直百叶组成。遮阳板在玻璃表面投下阴影,这有助于减少太阳辐射造成的热负荷,进而降低室内空间对空调的能源需求,同时,通过陶瓷表面的反射,更多自然光照进室内。一种特殊的二氧化钛催化涂层使瓷砖能够捕捉大气中的污染颗粒,这些颗粒被太阳光线惰性化,然后被大气降水冲走。同样的材料在建筑周围起到积极作用,促进臭氧转化为氧分子。

Characterised by a building envelope entirely clad in glass, the new Surgical and Emergency Centre has a tightly woven façade made up of full-height vertical louvers which perform a dual bioclimatic function. Thanks to the shadows cast on the glazing, these sunshades help to reduce the thermal loads caused by solar radiation, reducing the energy requirements for air conditioning of the interior spaces and, at the same time, increasing the amount of natural light diffused into the rooms through reflection on the ceramic surfaces. A special catalytic coating of titanium dioxide makes the tiles traps polluting particles in the atmosphere, which are inerted by the sun’s rays and then washed away by atmospheric precipitation. The same material plays an active role in the building’s surroundings, promoting the chemical transformation of ozone into oxygen molecules.

▼密集的编织立面,Tightly woven facade ©Duccio Malagamba

▼通高垂直百叶,Full-height vertical louvers ©Duccio Malagamba

▼立面细部,Details ©Duccio Malagamba

▼屋顶的百叶结构,Louver structure on the roof ©Duccio Malagamba

▼天井,Patio ©Duccio Malagamba

在室内材料的选择上,该项目秉承绿色建筑的原则,将最佳健康和卫生标准同使用不含挥发性有机化合物(VOC)的产品结合起来,保护环境健康。在禁止医院建筑广泛使用合成材料(如 PVC)后,医院内表面采用抗菌粗陶板,这种材料兼具极高的机械强度和耐久性,并且可以抑制有害健康的微生物进行繁殖。家具和卫浴设备同样经过精心设计:前者由不含甲醛的生态可持续材料制成,后者则在浴室、病房和诊室的盥洗台上采用抗菌涂层处理。室外和室内均采用可再生材料和绿植,它们可以进一步改善空气质量,并提升病患、工作人员和访客的幸福感。

The principles of the green building were the basis for the choice of materials for covering the interior spaces, combining the best standards of health and hygiene with the use of products free of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), protecting the health of the environment. After banning synthetic materials widely used in hospital construction, such as PVC, the interior surfaces are covered with antibacterial stoneware slabs, a product combining extremely high mechanical strength and durability with an action that inhibits the proliferation of microorganisms harmful to health. The same attention has been paid to the furnishings and sanitary fittings: the former are made of eco-sustainable materials free of formaldehyde, while the latter is treated with an antibacterial coating on the washbasins in the bathrooms, patient rooms, and clinics. The use of recycled materials and greenery, both outside and inside, will further improve air quality and the well-being perceived by patients, staff, and visitors.

▼供病患使用的公共客厅,Common living room for patients ©Duccio Malagamba

▼病房,Patient room ©Duccio Malagamba

▼病房一角,A corner of the patient room ©Duccio Malagamba

▼走廊,Corridor ©Duccio Malagamba

▼手术室,Operation room ©Duccio Malagamba

新外科和急诊中心顶尖且高效的设计有助于降低能源消耗,它将成为意大利首家获得LEED金级认证的医院。

The building’s cutting-edge and highly efficient plant design will help to reduce the building’s energy consumption. The new Surgical and Emergency Centre will be the first LEED Gold-certified hospital in Italy.

▼黄昏下的医院,Hospital at dusk ©Duccio Malagamba

▼夜景,Night view ©Duccio Malagamba

▼区位图,Location ©Mario Cucinella Architects

▼立面图,Elevations ©Mario Cucinella Architects

▼剖面图,Section ©Mario Cucinella Architects

▼构造细部,Detail ©Mario Cucinella Architects

Location: Milan, Italy
Year: 2021
Type: Competition – winner
Client: IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele
Surface: 40.000 sqm
Project: Mario Cucinella Architects
Team: Mario Cucinella, Marco Dell’Agli, Giulio Desiderio, Michele Olivieri, Emanuele Dionig, Martina Buccitti, Laura Mancini; Alberto Menozzi, Giuseppe Perrone, Matteo Donini, Lello Fulginiti, Daniele Basso. Bioclimatic design: Andrea Rossi. Model: Yuri Costantini, Ambra Cicognani, Andrea Genovesi. Competition: Eurind Caka, Stefano Bastia
Visual: Engram Studio, Paris Studio for Mario Cucinella Architects
Photo credit: Duccio Malagamba
Project Management: Ing. Alessandro Bartucci; Arch. Adriano Moras
Sanitary Layout Project: InAr Ingegneria Architettura
Structural Project: Ballardini Studio di Ingegnaria
Technical Plant Project: Deerns Italia SpA
Fire Prevention Project: Ranieri Studio Tecnico Associato
Constructor: Itinera SpA
Facades: Aza Aghito Zambonini Srl

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