时间没有初始,亦无终结,空间向内没有止处,向外亦无边界,我们生活在这个世界中,何以安放自我?何不打破界限,把自己轻轻地放在天地之间,体味大自然一年四季,一天四时的气息变化?

无界剧场,是在基于对时间无尽、空间亦无尽的思考基础上,在一处自然中,以通透的建筑形式和开放的姿态,通过在地营造的方式,创作的一个艺术空间。

Time has no beginning and no ending so does space , there is no end inward and no boundary outward. How can we place ourselves in this world? Why not break the boundaries and put yourself gently between heaven and earth to appreciate the changes of nature in four seasons of the year and four seasons of the day?

Boundless theater is an art space created in a natural place in a transparent architectural form and an open attitude through local construction based on the thinking of endless time and endless space.

▼视频,Video © 直译建筑摄影

白鹭湾美术馆小镇位于山东日照,座落于佛教名山五莲山东脉止落之处,苏东坡先生位居密州刺史期间,曾经多次游历此山,并留下了“其秀不减雁荡”的佳句。小镇的营造理念是“重塑人与自然的关系”,在一万亩的土地面积上,把美学空间同自然山水以及各种业态相结合,经十多年营建,俨然成为人们向往的理想生活之地。

小镇里有一个原始的小山谷,是五莲山余脉通向潮白河的一个自然谷地,一条小溪缓缓流过,像极了陶渊明笔下《桃花源记》中的意境。山谷里栽种了大量的樱花树,每逢春日花季,便灿烂了整个山谷,也灿烂了居民和游人的心。

Egret Bay art museum is located in Rizhao, Shandong Province. It is located at the east foot of Wulian mountain, a famous Buddhist mountain. Mr. Su Dongpo visited the mountain many times during the reign of the governor of Mizhou, and left a good sentence of “its beauty does not reduce the wild geese”. The construction concept of the town is to “reshape the relationship between man and nature”. On a land area of 10000 mu, it combines the aesthetic space with natural landscape and various business forms. After more than ten years of construction, it seems to be an ideal place for people to live.

There is a primitive small valley in the town, which is a natural valley from the remaining vein of Wulian mountain to Chaobai River. A stream flows slowly, which is very much like the artistic conception in Tao Yuanming’s peach blossom source. A large number of cherry trees have been planted in the valley. During the spring flower season, it will brighten the whole valley and the hearts of residents and tourists.

▼剧场鸟瞰,Aerial view © 直译建筑摄影

今年早春,白鹭湾的创始人徐群德先生和我一起踏青,我和他聊起我之前的做的一个建筑,其中有一张过程照片,画面里,有一片编织的曲面钢筋网,轻盈地飘在薄雾掩映中的树林里,看到这个画面,徐先生立刻说白鹭湾有一个地方,可以编织一个,这个地方就位于上文所说的樱花谷里。

徐先生欲在樱花谷的中心,做一个建筑,作为音乐、舞蹈、戏剧及其他艺术活动的场所。他与我描述,他理想中的状态,是“自然为上”,樱树是主体,建筑隐于其间,二者形成完美关系。我之理解,这个建筑,犹如中国山水画中,隐于深山和湖畔的小小茅篷,以优雅的姿态面向山水,且将自然作为灵魂之物。

In the early spring of this year, Mr. Xu qunde, the founder of egret Bay, went on an outing with me. I talked to him about a building I had built before. There was a process photo. In the picture, there was a woven curved steel mesh floating lightly in the woods hidden by mist. Seeing this picture, Mr. Xu immediately said that there was a place in egret bay where one could be woven, which was located in the cherry blossom Valley mentioned above.

Mr. Xu wants to build a building in the center of Cherry Valley as a place for music, dance, drama and other artistic activities. He described to me that his ideal state is “nature is the best”, the cherry tree is the main body, and the architecture is hidden in it. The two form a perfect relationship. As I understand it, this building is like a small thatched canopy hidden in deep mountains and lakes in Chinese landscape painting, facing the landscape with an elegant attitude, and taking nature as the soul.

▼剧场西立面,View from the west side © 直译建筑摄影

▼西、东部远观,View from west and east © 直译建筑摄影

我们也一致认为,照片画面里钢筋编织的网,应该演化为一个永久性的建筑,人们既可以悠游期间,又可以透过网隙观赏到怒放的樱花。然而一切都是模糊而未知的,在一片随意栽植的樱树林中,会产生一个怎样的建筑呢?

我像扔布袋一样,把我自己扔到了这片樱树林下,没有设计图纸,且离樱花的开放仅有一个月的时间。我与徐先生是多年好友,他说,只要你亲自在现场,自然就充满期待,就这样,在朋友的无限信任下,开始了工作。

We also agreed that the steel mesh in the picture should evolve into a permanent building. People can not only swim, but also watch the blooming cherry blossoms through the mesh gap. However, everything is vague and unknown. What kind of architecture will be produced in a randomly planted cherry forest?

Like throwing a cloth bag, I threw myself under the cherry trees. There were no design drawings, and it was only a month before the cherry blossoms opened. Mr. Xu and I have been good friends for many years. He said that as long as you are on the scene in person, you will naturally be full of expectations. In this way, with the unlimited trust of your friends, you started working.

▼局部网状结构鸟瞰,Aerial view through the steel mesh © 直译建筑摄影

我的想象中,剧场应该是一个流线体,一个环绕式的空间,人们可以在其间自由穿梭,我想象漫天樱花开放的时候,天地,樱树,剧场将我包容,樱树为主,剧场其次,而我则是这一情景中的自由元素,像《富春山居图》中,山林延展,居所隐逸,小小人物是自由的麻点,这是我所喜爱的诗意画面。

我联想到了艺术家的工作模式,自己同作品是零距离和全时段的,但这是个挑战,意味着无论风雨,我都要在这个场地中与匠人全程合作。我和工匠把钢筋当成铅笔线条,把树林主导的三维空间当成了画纸,坚硬的,不好驯服的钢筋在空中游走,化作柔软的曲线,按照半圆轨迹开始塑造原初的形体。

In my imagination, the theater should be a streamline body, a surrounding space, in which people can shuttle freely. I imagine that when cherry blossoms are blooming all over the sky, heaven and earth, cherry trees, the theater will accommodate me, cherry trees are the main, the theater is the second, and I am the free element in this scene. For example, in the picture of residence in Fuchun mountain, the mountains and forests are extended, the residence is secluded, and the little characters are free spots. This is my favorite poetic picture.

I think of the artist’s working mode. I have zero distance and full-time work with my works, but this is a challenge, which means that I have to cooperate with the craftsman in the whole process in this venue regardless of wind and rain. The craftsman and I took the steel bars as pencil lines and the three-dimensional space dominated by the woods as drawing paper. The hard and unmanageable steel bars swam in the air and turned into soft curves, and began to shape the original shape according to the semicircle track.

▼主舞台,The main stage © 直译建筑摄影

我在两株最大间距的樱树之间设定主舞台,用一根钢筋在两棵树间塑造了一个形态舒展的半椭圆,然后在半椭圆的两侧塑造廊道,接下来的连接工作变的不可描述,凭直觉、工匠的手感以及钢筋本身的柔韧性,我和匠人首先塑造出了主舞台的雏形,主舞台采用了半穹顶结构,是剧场中最大尺度的独立空间,一个充满仪式感的场所。

舞台的西侧有一块巨石,好似一个巨大的石床,巨石一端有一株大樱花树,形态舒展,好似旧时每个村头的风水树,往往,妻子在这里等待田间劳作的丈夫,母亲则在这儿等待游子的归来,而夏夜晚风中,是村中老幼其乐融融的纳凉场所,这一画面在今天也久违了。我将这棵树比拟为场地村头的风水树,编织了一个圆形的棚屋空间,地面圆径以巨石为尺,顶部高度则以樱枝为限,完成后,恰有一枝粉樱垂落穹顶,在面向南部山林的方向留一洞口,等你来。

On the west side of the stage, there is a huge stone, which looks like a huge stone bed. At one end of the stone, there is a large cherry tree, which stretches like the Feng Shui tree at the head of each village in the old days. Often, the wife is waiting for the husband who works in the field, and the mother is waiting for the return of the wanderer. In the wind of summer night, it is a pleasant place for the elderly and children in the village. This picture has not been seen for a long time today. I compare this tree to the Feng Shui tree at the head of the village, weaving a circular shed space. The round diameter of the ground is based on the boulder, and the height of the top is limited to the cherry branch. After completion, a pink cherry falls to the dome, leaving a hole in the direction facing the southern mountain forest for you to come.

▼日出时分的剧场,The theater at sunrise © 直译建筑摄影

▼巨石樱树空间,A space enclosed by the huge stone and cherry trees © 直译建筑摄影

舞台的东部则连接另一个方向的入口,在四棵樱花树的夹缝中,演化为一个富有变化的走廊。主舞台对面有两棵主要的樱花树,以树为轴,形成了两个扇面,形态像极了雀鸟的翅膀。场所的西部为主入口,作为对应,在场地的东部精细编织了一个半圆式穹顶,三位工人,历经五天,期间拆除三次,终告完成,穹顶独立形态很美,然放眼整个场地,却显得过于拥挤,遂罗丹砍手,忍痛拆之。

拆除后决定做一个流线体面,将北部主舞台和南部翅形舞台连为一体,它应该是一个立着的曲面墙体,但结构上很困难,因为从一开始,就决定所有的钢筋是曲线的,并且一端从地面长出,另一端进入地面,不能依靠直立的支撑,所以整个建筑没有一根直线。故采用一根钢筋两侧反方向扭转的方式,层层叠叠,使之立住。曲面墙低矮并且连接面较长,所以采用了两个不同的造型,结构与形态的协调,过程颇为烧脑。

The eastern part of the stage connects the entrance in the other direction and evolves into a changing corridor between four cherry trees. There are two main cherry trees opposite the main stage. Taking the tree as the axis, they form two fans, which are very similar to the wings of birds. The west of the site is the main entrance. As a corresponding, a semicircular dome was carefully woven in the east of the site. After five days, three workers demolished it three times and finally completed it. The dome is independent and beautiful. However, looking at the whole site, it seems too crowded, so Luo Dan cut his hand and reluctantly demolished it.

After the demolition, it was decided to make a streamline and decent to connect the north main stage and the south wing stage. It should be a standing curved wall, but the structure is very difficult, because from the beginning, it was decided that all the steel bars are curved, and one end grows from the ground and the other end enters the ground. It can not rely on the vertical support, so there is no straight line in the whole building. Therefore, a steel bar is twisted in the opposite direction on both sides to make it stand up. The curved wall is low and the connecting surface is long, so two different shapes are adopted. The coordination of structure and form is quite brain burning.

▼扇形舞台鸟瞰,The fan-shaped stage © 直译建筑摄影

▼连接主舞台与扇形舞台的曲墙,The curved wall connecting the main stage and the fan-shaped stage © 直译建筑摄影

用钢筋作为唯一材料,用纯手工在三维空间中编织为建筑,有较高的技术难度。我采用的方法是先做经线,也即上下的线条,经线的间距或均分,或密排或渐变,经线完成后再做纬线,纬线以少为佳,要对结构的稳定性起到拉结作用,或者与经线交织成为菱形图案,或者是自由舒缓的波浪线。形体的塑造和线条的组织方式,首先要遵循结构的稳定性,其次是遵循钢筋自身的特性,所有的钢筋都是匠人用手工弯曲的,没有采用任何机械折弯,再次就是遵循美的引领和统筹,尽量使每一条线的走向是美的,编织完成的形体也是美的。

Using steel bars as the only material and weaving them into buildings by hand in three-dimensional space has high technical difficulty. The method I adopt is to make the warp first, that is, the upper and lower lines, the spacing or equal distribution of the warp, or close arrangement or gradual change, and then make the weft after the warp is completed. The weft is better to be less. It should play a role in tying the stability of the structure, or interweave with the warp into a diamond pattern, or a free and soothing wavy line. The shaping of shape and the organization of lines should first follow the stability of structure, followed by the characteristics of steel bars. All steel bars are bent manually by craftsmen without any mechanical bending. Thirdly, follow the guidance and overall planning of beauty, and try to make the trend of each line beautiful and the shape woven is also beautiful.

▼樱花树和铺装,Shadows projected on the pavement © 直译建筑摄影

▼透过网状空隙观樱花,Cherry blossom viewed through the mesh © 直译建筑摄影

关于剧场本身,希望打破传统,首先消除了传统剧场对边界的限定,其次,打破了观众席与舞台的限定,一切可以自由移动的演出,都可以交互使用。再次,在非特定演出时,剧场呈现完全开放的姿态,是一个面向所有的人和所有自然事物的舞台,就在剧场完成的第一天,一场樱花雨飘飘洒洒,成了剧场的最早的舞蹈演员,让剧场带有了浪漫主义色彩,接下来,田园里的猫,散步的居民,职业舞蹈演员,游人,依次出场。

As for the theater itself, we hope to break the tradition. First, we eliminate the limitation of the boundary of the traditional theater. Second, we break the limitation of the auditorium and the stage. All performances that can move freely can be used interactively. Thirdly, in the non-specific performance, the theater presents a completely open attitude. It is a stage for all people and all natural things. On the first day of the completion of the theater, a cherry blossom rain became the earliest dancer of the theater, giving the theater a romantic color. Next, the cats in the countryside, walking residents, professional dancers and tourists appeared in turn.

▼孩子们的剧场,The theater for kids © 直译建筑摄影

剧场试图让人与人回归旧日里融洽温馨的邻里关系,曾几何时,我们就像《桃花源记》中描写的那样,童叟无欺,其乐融融,剧场所处的位置,也是白鹭湾大社区中的一个邻里空间,当代人中国人生活在快节奏当中,习惯了在拥挤的都市中构建自己的人生梦想,而每每回到社区,与邻居却行同路人,我们失去了农耕文化时期的悠然自得的田园生活,人们又处在一种渴望交流又惧怕交流的情愫之中,剧场试图通过其朦胧的诗意状态,拉近人与人之间的距离,造就一种充满妙趣的,轻松的相遇和交流方式。

The theater tries to make people return to the old harmonious and warm neighborhood relationship. Once upon a time, as described in the story of the source of peach blossoms, children and old people were free and happy. The location of the theater is also a neighborhood space in the Egretwan community. Contemporary Chinese people live in a fast pace and are used to building their own life dreams in a crowded city. When we return to the community, we walk with our neighbors, We have lost the leisurely pastoral life in the period of agricultural culture, and people are in a feeling of longing for and fear of communication. The theater tries to narrow the distance between people through its hazy poetic state and create a fun and relaxed way of meeting and communication.

▼地面洒落的光影和樱花,Cherry blossom playing with light and shadow © 直译建筑摄影

剧场也试图通过妙趣的空间营造,让人们与自然重新建立起美妙的联系,使人们以一种奇妙的方式邂逅漫天的樱花及周边的自然。在明代画家仇英的《独乐园图》中,有一个画面,表达的是古人用生长中的竹子盘围成一个亭子,而高士则在竹下悠然侧卧,置身其间的人,可以透过竹林的间隙,实现真正的卧游山水,毫无疑问,中国传统建筑、园林以及图像化了的中国画的精髓,在于人与自然充满妙趣的接触方式,剧场的网状结构,形成了无数个视觉孔洞,居游期间的人们,和周边的风景形成了戏剧性的对视。

▼仇英《独乐园图 》,The painting of solitary paradise by Qiu Ying

The theater also tries to re-establish a wonderful connection between people and nature through wonderful space construction, so that people can encounter the cherry blossoms and the surrounding nature in a wonderful way. In the painting of solitary paradise by Qiu Ying, a painter of the Ming Dynasty, there is a picture that shows that the ancients surrounded a pavilion with growing bamboo plates, while Gao Shize lay leisurely on his side under the bamboo. People in the midst can realize real sleeping landscape through the gap between the bamboo forests. There is no doubt that the essence of traditional Chinese architecture, gardens and pictorial Chinese painting lies in the wonderful contact between man and nature and the network structure of the theater, Countless visual holes have been formed, and people living and traveling have formed a dramatic look at the surrounding scenery.

▼剧场内部视野,Inside the theater space © 直译建筑摄影

剧场也试图把空间、自然和艺术三者做一个巧妙的结合,首先希望把剧场塑造成一个美学事物,它既是一个高频度使用的世俗空间,也是一个独立的美学场所,同时又与自然形成一种有趣的相处关系,希望通过银色线条所展现的手作之美,让进入场地中的人们对于形式美产生思考,连同空间与自然的多维交互关系,带给人们一种奇妙的体验。

The theater also tries to make a clever combination of space, nature and art. First of all, it hopes to shape the theater into an aesthetic thing. It is not only a secular space used frequently, but also an independent aesthetic place. At the same time, it also forms an interesting relationship with nature. It hopes that the beauty of craftsmanship displayed by the silver lines will make people in the venue think about the beauty of form, Together with the multidimensional interaction between space and nature, it brings people a wonderful experience.

▼编织细节,The weaving details © 直译建筑摄影

剧场的最美好诉求,是希望每一个置身其间的人以及自然的万物都成为主角,你我既是自己日常生活舞台的主角,也是这一特定舞台的主角,周遭的山林,风月,银丝线所反射的一日四时的光色变化,泥色土地上变换的光影,飘落的樱花雨,鸟雀飞蝶,朝霞夕阳,山间雾气,也都将是剧场的主角。

The most beautiful appeal of the theater is to hope that everyone in it and all things in nature will become the protagonist. You and I are not only the protagonist of the stage of our daily life, but also the protagonist of this specific stage. The surrounding mountains and forests, the wind and moon, the light color change reflected by the silver thread at four o’clock a day, the changing light and shadow on the muddy land, the falling cherry blossom rain, birds and butterflies, the dawn and sunset, and the mountain fog will also be the protagonists of the theater.

▼剧场西立面夜景,West elevation by night © 直译建筑摄影

▼剧场西部远观,A distant view from west © 直译建筑摄影

人生如同一场戏剧,无时不刻都在上演,一个人有无数角色,都需要皆力出演,人生无限,精神亦无限。无界剧场,希冀透过物质空间的无界形态,回应参与者精神上的无限状态。

Life is like a drama, which is performed all the time. A person has countless roles and needs to play them all. Life is infinite and spirit is infinite. Boundedless theater hopes to respond to the participants’ spiritual infinite state through the unbounded form of material space.

▼剧场夜间鸟瞰,Aerial view by night © 直译建筑摄影

项目名称:白鹭湾无界剧场
项目类型:建筑/景观/艺术装置
设计方:北京观筑景观规划设计研究院
公司网站:www.guanzhula.com
联系邮箱:guanzhua163.com
项目设计:北京观筑景观规划设计研究院
完成年份:2022年4月
设计团队:孔祥伟
项目地址:中国山东日照五莲县
建筑面积:350㎡
摄影版权:直译建筑摄影
客户:山东白鹭湾美术馆小镇

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