作为北欧五国之一,芬兰有着特殊的民族文化,低调而内敛。西苏精神与芬兰设计相结合,造就了不少芬兰神话。不同于其他以砖石或木结构为基础的教堂,岩石教堂在当地甚至在全世界,都是独一无二的存在。

As one of the five Nordic countries, Finland has a special national culture, low profiled and introverted. The combination of Sisu spirit and Finnish design has created many Finnish myths. Unlike other churches based on brick and stone or wood structures, rock church is unique in the local area and even in the world.

▼岩石教堂远观,view in distance ©梅可嘉

起初在修建教堂前,由于周边没有合适用地,只剩一块岩石小山丘。有人提议炸平岩石修建教堂,也有人提议保留环境现状,设计方案引来各种争议。最后,来自霍格兰的兄弟建筑师,蒂莫·索马莱宁和图奥莫·索马莱宁的设计方案脱颖而出。或许两人从小就生长在一个遍布石崖洞窟的环境中,这种崇尚自然设计理念早已深入了设计师的潜意识中。

Before building the church, there was only a small rocky hill, and no other suitable lands around. Proposals ranging from blasting the rock to build the church to preserving the status quo have attracted controversy. In the end, two architect brothers Timo Suomalainen and Tuomo Suomalainen from Hoagland stood out. Maybe because they grew up in an environment that was full of rock cliff caves, the concept of advocating natural design has long been deep in their subconscious.

▼看向教堂穹顶,view of the dome ©梅可嘉

教堂采用直接在岩石中,向下开凿,掏空岩石内部而成。从外部看,教堂比周围的建筑都要低矮一大截。教堂内四周的墙身保留了开凿石块后原有的肌理与施工痕迹。

The church is made by cutting directly into the rock and hollowing out the inside of the rock. From the outside, the church is much lower than the surrounding buildings. The walls inside and around the church retain the original texture and traces of construction from the stone cutting.

▼教堂入口,view of the entrance ©梅可嘉

墙上挂着由3001根管子组成的管风琴,演出时发出的声音能与四周的岩石产生共振的回音效果。教堂的穹顶是由22公里的铜条盘绕而成,直径为24米的圆。并由100根放射状钢筋混凝土梁与岩石壁上的碎石相连接,混凝土梁之间用玻璃封堵,从下往上看,仿佛穹顶漂浮在空中。

A pipe organ made up of 3,001 pipes hung on the wall, producing a sound that resonates with the surrounding rocks. The dome of the church is a 24 meters diameter circle witch is made up of 22 kilometers of coiled copper strips. It is connected by 100 radial reinforced concrete beams with rubble on the rock walls, which are blocked by glass, as if the dome is floating in the air from below.

▼室内空间概览,overview of the interior space ©梅可嘉

▼从二层看祭坛,view of the altar from the second floor ©梅可嘉

▼100根放射状钢筋混凝土梁与岩石壁上的碎石相连接,100 radial reinforced concrete beams ©梅可嘉

岩壁上的碎石是施工时炸碎的岩石堆砌而成,每块石头都进行精心挑选,下雨或者融雪时,水滴会从岩石缝中渗出,顺着岩壁流入地下的排水,整体设计都体现着芬兰人崇尚自然的古朴审美。教堂内的祭坛位置,经过精心计算,在夏季做礼拜时,阳光会透过天窗,洒到祭坛上,让教堂显得更加神圣。

The rubble on the rock face is a pile of rocks that were blown up during construction. Each stone is carefully selected. When it rains or melts snow, water droplets will seep out of the cracks in the rock and flow down the rock into the ground for drainage. The overall design reflects the primitive aesthetics of Finns who admire nature. The location of the altar in the church has been carefully calculated so that during summer services, sunlight will shine on the altar through the skylight, making the church more sacred.

▼看向墙上管风琴,view of the pipe organ on the wall ©梅可嘉

▼墙体细部,details ©梅可嘉

 

摄影师寄语:用脚步丈量世界
Measuring the World by feet

我本科学的建筑,毕业后一路向北来到北京工作。那时,北京一度是我到过最北的地方。由于公司的工作内容比较灵活多元,所以刚工作那会儿,除了设计工作外,我还做了不少别的工作内容。在一次外派驻场的工作中,因机缘巧合,我接触到了一套相对专业的摄影器材。透过取景器,新世界的大门仿佛被打开。

I majored in architecture for my bachelor degree. After graduated, I was going north all the way to Beijing to work there. At that time, Beijing was the most north I had ever been. Because my job in that company was flexible and diverse, I did some other works besides designing when I started working there. And one time on a project site, I came across to a set of relatively professional photographic equipment. Through the viewfinder, the door to a new world was opened.

▼岩石教堂座位区,seating area ©梅可嘉

那天后,我决定也要给自己也整一台“专业”相机,并且带着它出去旅行。于是在手头工作告一段落后,我踏上了旅途,继续向北,去了莫斯科,并最终来到了北欧。在那里,我用脚步丈量城市,感受当地的城市空间尺度;我用双眼观察路人,与路人进行眼神交流;我用直觉探索当地建筑,并用相机进行记录。一路上,我看到了许多之前在杂志上才能见到的画面。

After that day, I decided to get myself a “professional” camera and take it on trips. So, when my work was done, I started my journey to further north, Moscow, then eventually the Northern Europe. There, I measured the city with my feet and felt the scale of the local urban space. I observed people with my eyes and made eye contacts with them. I explored local architectures with my instinct and recorded them with my camera. On the path, I saw many views that only seen in magazines before.

▼墙边烛台,candlestick by the wall ©梅可嘉

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