巴米扬位于古代丝绸之路上,是阿富汗中部地区的一个小镇。它是同名省份的首府,也是哈扎拉族的文化和政治中心。2001年3月,全世界目睹了塔利班摧毁了两尊屹立在巴米扬山谷中的巨型佛像,这两尊佛像大约在1500年前雕刻而成,是迄今为止世界上最大的站立佛像,也是佛教和当地文化不可分割的一部分。2014年,联合国教科文组织在韩国政府的经济支持下举办了建设文化中心的国际竞赛,以保护现有遗产和促进当地社会及文化发展。本案在来自117个国家的1070个方案中脱颖而出,荣获一等奖。

Located on the ancient silk road, Bamyan is a small town in the central region of Afghanistan. It is the capital of the homonymous province and the cultural and political center of the Hazára ethnic group. In March 2001, the world watched as the Taliban destroyed two colossal Buddha statues that towered over Afghanistan’s Bamyan Valley. The statues, carved approximately 1500 years ago, were considered the largest standing Buddha sculptures in the world and were an integral part of both Buddhism and local culture. In 2014, UNESCO with the economic support of the government of South Korea convened an international competition to build a cultural center in order to safeguard the existing heritage and promote the social and cultural development on the region. Among 1070 proposals from 117 countries this project received the first prize.

▼项目远观,distant view ©Amin Asifi

 

缺席的永恒存在
The Eternal Presence of Absence

巴米扬文化中心致力于成为新的思想交流中心,因此,我们不想单纯地建造建筑物,而是想要打造集会场所,它是一个空间体系,在这里,令人印象深刻的佛崖景观与文化中心丰富的活动交织在一起。巴米扬文化中心不是“建造”的,而是通过地下挖掘而被“发现”。这种原始的建筑策略造就了负面影响最小的建筑物,它完全融入景观,利用地面的热惰性和保温性能,并尊重当地的建筑传统。

The Bamiyan Cultural Center seeks to create a new vital center for communicating and sharing ideas. Therefore, our proposal tries to create not an object-building but rather a meeting place; a system of spaces where the impressive landscape of the Buddha Cliffs intertwine with the rich cultural activities that the center will foster. The Bamiyan Cultural Center is not ‘built’ but rather ‘discovered’ by carving it out of the ground. This primordial architectural strategy creates a minimal negative impact building that fully integrates into the landscapes, takes advantage of the thermal inertia and insulation of the ground and acknowledges the local building traditions.

▼建筑与景观融合,integration of architecture and landscape ©Amin Asifi

 

新公园:佛园
A new park: The Buddha Gardens

当游客到达新的文化中心时,首先会看到一个花园,而非一座建筑,花园也是向所有巴米扬居民开放的。文化中心主体位于入口层以下,留出一览无余的巴米扬山谷和佛崖景观。文化中心的屋顶形成一系列观景平台,游客和当地居民可以在这里聚集、观景、观察文化中心内的活动。

When the visitor arrives to the new Cultural Center site, rather than finding a building over the landscape, she will first encounter a garden, a park open to all Bamiyan city population. The Cultural Center, located below the access level, leaves the panoramic view of the Bamiyan Valley and the Buddha Cliffs completely unobstructed. The rooftops of the center create a series of viewing platforms where the visitors and the local habitants can meet, contemplate the landscape and peek into the activities of the Cultural Center.

▼建筑外观,external view of the building ©Amin Asifi

 

文化中心
The Cultural Center

轻缓的坡道与西侧巨型佛龛对齐,引导游客前往文化中心的核心——广场,该广场将成为举办文化活动的开放空间。项目共分为三座建筑,由缝隙空间相隔。在三座建筑之中,表演和展览建筑用于举办公共活动,研究和教育建筑用于举办半公开活动,行政建筑用于举办私人活动。这种划分使每座建筑可以独立运行,降低维护和供暖成本。

A soft ramp, aligned with the Western Giant Buddha Statue Niche will guide the visitor down to a plaza that serves as a vital core for the Cultural Center. This plaza will be an open space for cultural activities. These interstitial spaces are formed by the three buildings in which the program is divided. While the public activities of the center are hosted in the Performance and Exhibition Building, the Research and Education Building hosts the semi-public activities of the program and the Administrative Building hosts the private activities. This division of the program into several building allows each to work independently, reduce the cost of maintenance and heating.

▼文化中心的核心——广场,the core of the Cultural Center – plaza ©Amin Asifi

▼轻缓的坡道与西侧巨型佛龛对齐 ©Amin Asifi
the soft ramp is aligned with the Western Giant Buddha Statue Niche

▼广场细部,detail ©Amin Asifi

 

沉默与时间体验
Silence and the experience of time

文化中心的室内空间完全不加以细节或装饰,纯粹而朴素的空间有利于沉思和反思。天窗将光线引入室内,这些光线跟随太阳路径移动,呈现出时间的流逝。拱形展览空间与西侧佛龛的轴线一致,为当代文化表现提供了戏剧化的历史背景,体现出阿富汗过去与现在的对比和关联。

The interior spaces of the center completely devoid of detail or ornament, by their sheer austerity favor a contemplative and reflexive attitude. The skylights of the cultural center create lines of light that move following the path of the sun through the sky making visible the passage of time. The vaulted spaces of the exhibition area are oriented in line with the axis of the Western Buddha Niche and frame the views towards it giving a dramatic historic backdrop to the contemporary cultural manifestations. This makes visible the contrast and continuity between afghan pass and present.

▼拱形展览空间,the vaulted space of the exhibition area ©Amin Asifi

▼不加装饰的朴素空间,austere space without decoration ©Amin Asifi

▼天窗将光线引入室内,the skylight brings light into the interior ©Amin Asifi

▼光线跟随太阳路径移动 ©Amin Asifi
the light moves following the path of the sun

▼由室内望向西侧佛龛 ©Amin Asifi
view to the Western Buddha Niche from the interior

▼放映室,projection room ©Amin Asifi

▼空间细节,detail ©Amin Asifi

▼角落空间,corner space ©Amin Asifi

▼屋顶效果图,roof rendering ©M2R Arquitectos

▼模型,models ©M2R Arquitectos

▼区位图,location plan ©M2R Arquitectos

▼平面图,plan ©M2R Arquitectos

▼剖面图,sections ©M2R Arquitectos

Project Name : Bamyan Cultural Center
Client-Promotor: UNESCO
Architects : M2R Arquitectos
Sitio Web : http://www.m2rarquitectos.com
Social Media : @m2rarquitectos
Email contact: estudio@m2rarquitectos.com
Location Office : Cordoba/Argentina Barcelona/España
Construction :2015 – 2021
Surface (m2): 2.450 m2
Project Location : Bamyan/Afghanistan
Program: Cultural-Educational
Photographer: Amin Asifi
E-mail: aminasafi@gmail.com

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