自上世纪80年代开始大规模发掘的三星堆遗址,因其出土文物的科学、艺术价值,备受全国人民瞩目,2021年,随着新一轮考古发掘,更大大扩充了文物总量,现有的建于1997年的展馆已无法容纳文物收藏与展示的需求。中国建筑设计研究院以“浮·游”为题,提出新的三星堆博物馆新馆建筑设计的解决方案。

▼项目视频,Video © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

The Sanxingdui site, which has been excavated on a large scale since the 1980s, has attracted the attention of people all over the country because of its scientific and artistic value. In 2021, with a new round of archaeological excavation, the total number of cultural relics has been greatly expanded. The existing exhibition hall built in 1997 can no longer meet the needs of cultural relics collection and display. With the title of “floating and traveling”, China Architectural Design and Research Group rises a new architectural design solution for the new Sanxingdui Museum.

▼项目概览,Preview © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

 

01. 三星堆博物馆的特性
Thoughts on Characteristics of Sanxingdui Museum

有关三星堆的研究,虽伴随着挖掘步步推进,但不管是从断代、传承、文化意指等方面来看,至今还有许多未解之处,因此,对于三星堆的理解呈现出一种“动态”,承载它的博物馆,似乎不适合惯常以断代史作为线索的展陈方式。另外,除了提供展示功能外,这一处新场馆还承担着存放、研究文物的功能,建筑设计应对三星堆的特殊性做出回应。

Although the research on Sanxingdui has been advancing step by step with the excavation, there are still many unsolved points in terms of dating, inheritance, cultural meaning, etc. Therefore, the understanding of Sanxingdui appears to be “dynamic” , it seems that the museum hosts it is not suitable for the display method that is accustomed to using chronological history as a clue. Moreover, in addition to providing display functions, this new venue also undertakes the functions of storing and researching cultural relics. The architectural design should respond to the particularity of Sanxingdui.

▼清晨鸟瞰,Aerial view in the morning © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

旧有的三星堆博物馆(下称二号馆)于1997年建成,之后园区内又陆续建成了其他各类设施建筑,随着挖掘深入,已没有足够空间容纳文物,进驻这一园区的新三星堆博物馆,必然需要思考与园区内已有建筑的关系,达到协调的状态。

The old Sanxingdui Museum (hereinafter referred to as the No. 2 Hall) was completed in 1997. After that, various facilities and buildings were built in the park. As the excavation goes, there was not enough space to accommodate cultural relics. The new Sanxingdui Museum was stationed in this park., it is necessary to think about the relationship with the existing buildings in the park to achieve a coordinated state.

▼崔愷院士手稿,Design concept by CUI Kai

不同于城市中的博物馆,三星堆博物馆位于广汉市中心城区以西一片尚处于开发之中的区块。从周边的自然条件来看,新的三星堆博物馆位于鸭子河南岸,该河段属于湿地自然保护区的核心区域,远眺还可见雪山,自然资源异常优越,但由于新馆的位置在河畔的滩地上,需要同时考虑对湿地的保护,并注意遭受洪涝危害的风险。

Unlike the museums in the city, the Sanxingdui Museum is located in an under-development block west of the downtown area of Guanghan. Judging from the surrounding natural conditions, the new Sanxingdui Museum is located on the south bank of the Yazi River. This section of the river belongs to the core area of the Wetland Nature Reserve. Snow-capped mountains can be seen in the distance. The natural resources are exceptionally superior. Above ground, the protection of wetlands needs to be considered at the same time, and attention should be paid to the risk of flood damage.

▼中轴鸟瞰,Central axis © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

▼二号馆与鸭子河,Sanxingdui Museum and the Yazi River © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

 

02. 设计策略分析
Design strategy analysis

 

1)尊重湿地环境
Respect the wetland

设计方案充分利用场地发达的水网和植被,将地面恢复成原生态的湿地公园再现原始文明的生存环境。 建筑主体在筒阵的承托下以一种轻盈的姿态悬浮于基地,使园区景观与鸭子河连续贯通,融为一体。充分利用园区现状景观资源,统筹规划园区各板块功能,有效进行雨洪管理,呈现“与水为友”的和谐环境。建筑与环境充分融合,将场景再现式展厅和公共服务区嵌入到湿地公园之中,让室外景观成为室内空间的背景,打造沉浸式体验效果。

The design plan makes full use of the well-developed water network and vegetation on the site, and restores the ground to an original ecological wetland park to reproduce the living environment of primitive civilization. The main body of the building is suspended on the base in a light posture under the support of the tube array, so that the park landscape and the Yazi River are continuously connected and integrated. Make full use of the current landscape resources of the park, plan the functions of each section of the park, effectively manage rainwater and floods, and present a harmonious environment of “friendship with water”. The building and the environment are fully integrated, and the scene-reproducing exhibition hall and public service area are embedded into the wetland park, making the outdoor landscape the background of the indoor space, creating an immersive experience effect.

▼沿河效果,View from the river front © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

▼悬浮之姿与水为友,The floating volumes show “friendship with water” © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

 

2)回应多点分散的园区特点
Responding to the characteristics of multi-point dispersed parks

充分尊重园区既有的多点分散的格局,将分散的博物馆打造成为馆园一体的博物园。新馆的建设,充分考虑到保持二号馆和文化甬道的核心地位,并达到园区空间的整体平衡。园区设置多个出入口,除了通过游客中心入园的单一路径,还扩充了北侧鸭子河方向进入博物馆的游园路径,并设计西侧坡道加强与老二号馆的交通联系。未来,园区将成为一座风景优美的公园,即使不进行博物馆参观的市民,也可进入踱步留连。

Fully respect the existing multi-point and scattered pattern of the park, and turn the scattered museums into a museum that integrates the museum and the park. The construction of the new hall fully considers maintaining the core position of Hall No. 2 and the cultural corridor, and achieves the overall balance of the park space. The park has multiple entrances and exits. In addition to the single path entering the park through the visitor center, it also expands the path to the museum in the direction of Yazi River on the north side, and designs the ramp on the west side to strengthen the traffic connection with the old No. 2 Hall. In the future, the park will become a scenic park, and even citizens who do not visit the museum can enter and linger.

▼博物馆北广场入口,Entrance at the north square © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

▼游客接待中心,Visitor center © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

 

3)与原有二号馆的关系处理
Dealing with the relationship with the original No. 2 Hall

以馆园融合的策略在保持二号馆园区标志性地位的同时塑造广汉文化新地标。一组厚重有力的筒阵矗立在原生态湿地上,消解了建筑巨大的体量,在尺度上寻求与园区老建筑的协调。20米高、420米长的建筑在高大绵密的树林间若隐若现,二号馆以其40米的绝对高度保持其园区的标志性地位。新馆西侧退让二号馆85米,给予老馆足够的尊重与空间缓冲。新馆极具神秘感的曲线造型语言与二号馆的螺旋曲线的形式语言完美呼应,融为一体。每个筒体的屋顶造型均对应着三星堆特有的文化符号。

▼园区已有建筑分布
The existing buildings in the park © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

With the strategy of integrating the museum and garden, while maintaining the iconic status of the No. 2 Hall Park, it will create a new landmark of Guanghan culture. A group of thick and powerful tube arrays stand on the original ecological wetland, which dissolves the huge volume of the building and seeks to coordinate with the old buildings in the park in scale. The 20-meter-high and 420-meter-long building is looming among the tall and dense woods, and Hall 2 maintains the iconic status of its park with its absolute height of 40 meters. On the west side of the new building, the No. 2 building is set aside 85 meters to give the old building enough respect and space buffer. The mysterious curve shape language of the new hall perfectly echoes and integrates with the form language of the spiral curve of the second hall. The roof shape of each cylinder corresponds to the unique cultural symbols of Sanxingdui.

▼二号馆与园区内已有建筑,The No. 2 Hall and the existing buildings in the park © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

▼面向二号馆的西侧入口,The west entrance facing the No. 2 Hall © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

 

4)让展品回归语境
Bring the exhibits back into context

以现代情景语境打造吻合三星堆文物特征的展陈设计让展品回归其原初的语境之中。三星堆文物尺度小、断代分期尚不明确的特点,使得展陈时不适合过分方正封闭的常规展厅,局部曲线迂回的展览路径更有利于观者沉浸式的漫游体验,激发未知的探索欲。

The exhibition design in line with the characteristics of Sanxingdui cultural relics is created in the context of modern situations, allowing the exhibits to return to their original context. The characteristics of Sanxingdui cultural relics are small in scale and unclear dating and staging, which makes it unsuitable for the conventional exhibition halls that are too square and closed, and the partially curved and circuitous exhibition path is more conducive to the immersive roaming experience of the audience and stimulates the desire to explore the unknown.

▼综合陈列区流动的展示空间为不同展陈模式提供了可能性,The partially curved and circuitous exhibition path is more conducive to the immersive roaming experience of the audience © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

新馆中,基本陈列区取消了各自封闭的边界,在空间上融为一体。琳琅满目的器物堆砌在悬浮感的展柜中,在展陈灯光烘托下,与多媒体内容虚实结合,犹如“漂浮”在历史长河中的珍宝。透过幽暗的滤光玻璃幕墙,窗外风景若隐若现,成为展品的自然底景。另外,我们引入库展结合的概念,使得参观者可以体验考古研究的现场感与亲历感。它不再是一座一般意义上正襟危坐的博物馆,希望新馆可以成为一个邀请所有参观者一起探索古老三星堆文化的地方。

In the new pavilion, the basic exhibition areas have canceled their respective closed boundaries and are spatially integrated. A dazzling array of utensils are piled up in a suspended showcase. Under the contrast of the display lights, they are combined with the virtual and real multimedia content, just like the treasures “floating” in the long river of history. Through the dark filter glass curtain wall, the scenery outside the window is looming, becoming the natural background of the exhibits. In addition, we introduce the concept of combination of library and exhibition, so that visitors can experience the sense of presence and experience of archaeological research. It is no longer a sitting museum in the general sense, and it is hoped that the new museum can become a place that invites all visitors to explore the ancient Sanxingdui culture together.

▼一层展厅,Exhibition hall on the ground floor © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

 

5)塑造神性空间
Shaping the divine space

通过塑造神性的空间体验,表达三星堆神秘的古蜀文明。六个筒体成为核心展厅:以艺术化的空间语言展现出三星堆国宝重器之神秘。沿着筒体展厅下到地面,是嵌入到湿地中的场景再现式展厅。半透的玻璃界面让原始蛮荒的湿地景观成为展品的背景。走上屋顶花园层时,连绵的屋面成为阡陌纵横的田园景观,可举办各类公众文化活动。

▼视频,Video © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

The mysterious ancient Shu civilization of Sanxingdui is expressed through the space experience that shapes the divinity. The six cylinders become the core exhibition hall: the mystery of Sanxingdui’s national treasures is displayed in an artistic space language. Down to the ground along the cylindrical exhibition hall, it is a scene reproduction exhibition hall embedded in the wetland. The semi-transparent glass interface makes the primitive and wild wetland landscape the background of the exhibits. When walking up to the roof garden layer, the continuous roof becomes an idyllic landscape of vertical and horizontal fields, and various public cultural activities can be held.

▼核心展厅设置在筒体内,以艺术化的空间语言展现出三星堆国宝重器之神秘,The cylinders become the core exhibition hall. The mystery of Sanxingdui’s national treasures is displayed in an artistic space language © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

▼场景再现式展厅,半透的玻璃界面让原始蛮荒的湿地景观成为展品的背景,A scene reproduction exhibition hall embedded in the wetland © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

▼屋顶的黄昏,Roof terrace in the sunset © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

 

6)可持续的博物馆
Sustainable Museum

以极具创新的结构体系和技术手段,建造布局灵活,可持续更新的博物馆。

多筒支承大跨空间钢桁架结构体系,形成了特有的大尺度架空处理方式,展厅净高5米以上,充分实现无柱大跨度、大荷载的展陈需求。每个筒体的剖面各具特色,具有9-20米不同层高以适合多种主题和文物展示。钢筋混凝土筒体竖向构件和钢结构水平构件的有机结合,令建筑的抗震、防洪、抗渗的性能达到最优。

▼结构体系,Structural system © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

With innovative structural systems and technical means, a museum with flexible layout and sustainable renewal will be built.

The multi-tube supporting large-span space steel truss structure system has formed a unique large-scale overhead treatment method. The clear height of the exhibition hall is more than 5 meters, which fully meets the exhibition needs of large-span and large-load without columns. The section of each cylinder has its own characteristics, with different floor heights of 9-20 meters to suit a variety of themes and cultural relics display. The organic combination of the vertical members of the reinforced concrete cylinder and the horizontal members of the steel structure optimizes the building’s performance in earthquake resistance, flood control, and impermeability.

▼筒状结构内的展厅,Exhibition space in cylinders © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

科研办公和文物库房区高效集中布置,悬浮于地面之上,有效防范洪水隐患。竖向设备系统集成于坚固的筒壁中,横向设备管网集成在1.5米厚的空腔楼板和吊顶内部;应急疏散系统集成在筒壁内,保证了安全高效的应急疏散和展览空间的完整性。

The scientific research office and cultural relics warehouse area are efficiently and centrally arranged, suspended above the ground to effectively prevent flood hazards. The vertical equipment system is integrated into the solid cylinder wall, and the horizontal equipment pipe network is integrated into the 1.5-meter-thick cavity floor and ceiling; the emergency evacuation system is integrated into the cylinder wall, ensuring safe and efficient emergency evacuation and the integrity of the exhibition space.

▼黄昏鸟瞰,Aerial view in the evening © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

▼总平面图,Master plan © 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

项目名称 三星堆古蜀文化遗址博物馆及附属设施工程设计方案
项目类型 博物馆
项目地点 四川省广汉市
设计单位 中国建筑设计研究院有限公司

设计主持 崔愷、郑世伟
历史顾问 陈同滨 刘翔宇
景观顾问 李存东
建筑专业 黄鹤鸣 李孟书 崔杨波 王众瓛 蒋楚篁 张迪 刘健 蔡文(以下为实习生)张雨 尹肖同 郑志强 孙燕妮
室内专业 张哲婧 杨昊然 孔嘉伟
景观专业 关午军 白建立 滕依晨 王悦 杨宛迪 朱雅晖 韩迅
结构专业 任庆英 刘文珽 李森 刘子傲
总图专业 连荔
展陈咨询  韩永 李江
给排水专业 夏树威
暖通专业 汪春华
电气专业 常立强
经济专业 禚新伦
项目经理 尤琳
建筑状态:方案
设计时间:2020-2021
建筑面积:博物馆34950㎡;接待中心 8000㎡

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