这座新修道院的设计历经了一个长期参与的过程,这使得建筑团队能够专注于一个复杂的功能方案,将与客户的生活方式相关的一系列需求(包括宗教祈祷和招待亲友等)与场地所在的气候和社会条件进行有效的结合。

The design of the new convent took place through a long-time participatory process which allowed us to focus on a complex functional program that combined the requests related to the lifestyle of the clients, religious dedicated to prayer, hospitality and to fraternal life, with the needs deriving from the climatic and social conditions of the site.

▼视频,Video

修道院位于萨尔瓦多环境最脆弱的São Cristóvão地区。圣方济会伯大尼兄弟会于2010年在这里成立,虽然只是一个临时结构,但它在2012年为附近贫民窟的100多名儿童提供了幼儿园的场地,并将在修道院建成后成为一所学校。

The Convent is situated in the neighborhood of São Cristóvão, one of the most dangerous and fragile of Salvador. The Franciscan Fraternity of Bethany is there since 2010, albeit in a temporary structure, and in 2012 it created a kindergarten for more than 100 children from the neighboring favelas, as part of a wider social project that after the completion of the convent will see the realization of a school.

▼项目概览:修道院餐厅,Preview: the refectory © Cesare Querci

该项目的设计分别在意大利和巴西两地完成,为的是能够充分了解客户的精神信仰,以及在特殊环境下创建修道院的意义。

在修道院的实际生活中,设计团队认识到了围绕个人祈祷和集体分享这两条日常规范来组织空间的重要性,以及亚热带的极端气候会如何对人们的生活方式产生影响。由于建筑没有安装机械空调系统,因此需要设计遮阳和避雨的功能,同时让空气能够在建筑之间流动。

The design took place partly in Italy and partly in Brazil, to fully understand the spirituality of the client and the meaning of creating a convent in such a particular context.

Living the life of the convent we understood how important it was to organize the spaces around the rules that mark the day, rules made up of individual moments of prayer and moments of sharing, but as the same time how the often-extreme conditions of the subtropical climate, influence the lifestyle. Since the building would not have had mechanical air conditioning systems, it was necessary to offer protection from the sun and shelter from the rain but at the same time leave the air to flow between the buildings.

▼圣器室,The sacristy building © Cesare Querci

▼立面近景,Close-up view to the sacristy building © Cesare Querci

从平面上看,设计重新诠释了经典的内向式修道院类型,增加了回廊的数量,并削减了建筑物的厚度,以便将来自东面的盛行风引入每一座建筑物和开放区域。

Planimetrically, we reinterpreted the classical introverted conventual typology multiplying the number of cloisters and thinning out the buildings to allow the wind, which constantly blows from the east, to reach all the buildings and open areas.

▼功能分布示意,Functional scheme © Mixtura

修道院的建筑形式围绕着五个绿化回廊组织在一起:西侧的体量朝向入口和主要的市政道路,是建筑群的公共部分,专门用于迎接来访者;南面的体量是餐厅,中间是教堂,北面则是圣器室和接待大厅。这些体量虽然相互独立,但又合乎理想地通过巨大的木制屋顶得到了统一。

The convent’s morphology is articulated around five green cloisters: at west, facing the access door and the main municipal road, there is the public part of the complex, dedicated to welcoming, with the refectory at south, the church in the middle and the sacristy and reception hall at north. These buildings, although autonomous and recognizable, are ideally and formally united by a large wooden roof which gives them architectural unity.

▼教堂和餐厅建筑,The church and the refectory © Cesare Querci

▼餐厅外观,The refectory © Cesare Querci

▼餐厅二层视角,The refectory from the first floor © Cesare Querci

▼餐厅内的分流走廊,The refectory distribution gallery © Cesare Querci

▼在餐厅前奔跑的孩子们,Children’s playing in front of refectory © Cesare Querci

伸出的屋檐在小教堂前方形成了一个遮阳的广场,在提供聚会场地的同时,使教堂能够容纳超过500人就座。

In front of the chapel, in continuity with the large roof, there is a covered square, a meeting place that offers shelter from the sun during the day and allows the church to accommodate more than 500 seated people.

▼教堂外的广场,The covered square © Cesare Querci

▼教堂,The Church © Cesare Querci

▼教堂内部空间,The Church – Interiors © Cesare Querci

圣器室和东北侧的办公楼之间设有一座图书馆,这是一个用聚碳酸酯建造的半透明体量,悬于四根巴西柚木立柱上,在夜晚会呈现出灯箱般的观感。

Between the sacristy and the administration buildings to the north east stands the library, a translucent polycarbonate’s volume suspended on four cumaru’s wood pillars that at night becomes a luminous lantern that allows its contents to be perceived.

▼图书馆,The library © Cesare Querci

▼夜晚的图书馆,The library at night © Cesare Querci

位于东南侧的体量是僧侣和修女们的住所,这是唯一一座3层高的建筑,采用预制混凝土结构建造——这在萨尔瓦多是一项非常普遍和可靠的技术。该建筑被木制的外骨架包围,后者容纳了分流走廊和木制百叶窗,能够防止墙壁过热并阻挡雨水。

To the south-east is the building that houses the cells of the monks and nuns, the only 3-floor building consisting of a precast concrete structure, a very widespread and reliable technology in Salvador. It’s surrounded by a wooden exoskeleton that houses the distribution gallery and systems of wooden brise-soleil necessary to avoid overheating of the walls and to guarantee shelter from rainwater.

▼宿舍楼,The cell’s building © Cesare Querci

▼建筑被木制的外骨架包围,The building is surrounded by a wooden exoskeleton © Cesare Querci

▼宿舍楼走廊,The cell’s building – Distribution galleries © Cesare Querci

▼从宿舍回廊望向天空,The sky from the cell’s cloister © Cesare Querci

每座建筑的屋顶都抬升或分离于外墙结构,以便让热空气排出。宿舍和其他封闭区域则通过门窗上方的可调节百叶窗保证交叉通风。

The roofs of all buildings are always raised and detached from the building envelope to allow hot air to escape, while cross ventilation is always guaranteed in the cells and other closed areas through adjustable brise soleil systems above doors and windows.

▼建筑立面,The refectory facade © Cesare Querci

▼圣器室内部,The sacristy building – Interiors © Cesare Querci

▼室内立面细节,Interior facade © Cesare Querci

由于使用了当地的人力和传统技术,手工完成的构件使该项目呈现出强烈的建筑特征。光伏板、热水和雨水回收系统让修道院建筑群几乎完全实现了能源的自给自足。

The artisanal component, resulting from the use of local manpower and traditional techniques for the cooling of the rooms, gives the project a strong architectural identity.The use of photovoltaic panels to produce electricity, hot water and the recovery of rainwater, make the convent complex almost completely energy self-sufficient.

▼教堂(左)和图书馆(右)夜景,The chruch (left) and the library (right) at night © Cesare Querci

▼餐厅夜景,The refectory at night © Cesare Querci

▼整体夜景,Night view © Cesare Querci

▼场地平面图,Site Plan © Mixtura

▼首层平面图,Ground Floor Plan © Mixtura

▼二层平面图,First Floor Plan © Mixtura

▼东立面图,East Elevation © Mixtura

▼西立面图,West Elevation © Mixtura

▼纵剖面图,Longitudinal section © Mixtura

▼可持续设计示意,Sustainability © Mixtura

Project Name: FFB Convent
Author/Architect: Mixtura
Lead Architect: Cesare Querci
Area: 5300 m²
Year : 2022
Design Team: Cesare Querci, Maria Grazia Prencipe, Guido Di Croce
Early Stage Design: Cesare Querci, Maria Grazia Prencipe, Guido Di Croce, Alessandro D’Onofrio, Fabio Speranza, Vittoria Grifone
Photo Credit: Cesare Querci

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